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Echocardiography derived three-dimensional printing of normal and abnormal mitral annuli


1 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2 Department of Anesthesiology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown Alpert School of Medicine, Providence, RI, USA
3 Division of Cardiac Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Feroze Mahmood
CC-470, West Clinical Center, 1 Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.142062

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Year : 2014  |  Volume : 17  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 279-283

 

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Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of using echocardiographic data to generate three-dimensional models of normal and pathologic mitral valve annuli before and after repair procedures. Materials and Methods: High-resolution transesophageal echocardiographic data from five patients was analyzed to delineate and track the mitral annulus (MA) using Tom Tec Image-Arena software. Coordinates representing the annulus were imported into Solidworks software for constructing solid models. These solid models were converted to stereolithographic (STL) file format and three-dimensionally printed by a commercially available Maker Bot Replicator 2 three-dimensional printer. Total time from image acquisition to printing was approximately 30 min. Results: Models created were highly reflective of known geometry, shape and size of normal and pathologic mitral annuli. Post-repair models also closely resembled shapes of the rings they were implanted with. Compared to echocardiographic images of annuli seen on a computer screen, physical models were able to convey clinical information more comprehensively, making them helpful in appreciating pathology, as well as post-repair changes. Conclusions: Three-dimensional printing of the MA is possible and clinically feasible using routinely obtained echocardiographic images. Given the short turn-around time and the lack of need for additional imaging, a technique we describe here has the potential for rapid integration into clinical practice to assist with surgical education, planning and decision-making.






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1 Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA
2 Department of Anesthesiology, Rhode Island Hospital, Brown Alpert School of Medicine, Providence, RI, USA
3 Division of Cardiac Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA

Correspondence Address:
Feroze Mahmood
CC-470, West Clinical Center, 1 Deaconess Road, Boston, MA 02215
USA
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/0971-9784.142062

Rights and Permissions

Aims and Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess the clinical feasibility of using echocardiographic data to generate three-dimensional models of normal and pathologic mitral valve annuli before and after repair procedures. Materials and Methods: High-resolution transesophageal echocardiographic data from five patients was analyzed to delineate and track the mitral annulus (MA) using Tom Tec Image-Arena software. Coordinates representing the annulus were imported into Solidworks software for constructing solid models. These solid models were converted to stereolithographic (STL) file format and three-dimensionally printed by a commercially available Maker Bot Replicator 2 three-dimensional printer. Total time from image acquisition to printing was approximately 30 min. Results: Models created were highly reflective of known geometry, shape and size of normal and pathologic mitral annuli. Post-repair models also closely resembled shapes of the rings they were implanted with. Compared to echocardiographic images of annuli seen on a computer screen, physical models were able to convey clinical information more comprehensively, making them helpful in appreciating pathology, as well as post-repair changes. Conclusions: Three-dimensional printing of the MA is possible and clinically feasible using routinely obtained echocardiographic images. Given the short turn-around time and the lack of need for additional imaging, a technique we describe here has the potential for rapid integration into clinical practice to assist with surgical education, planning and decision-making.






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