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Table of Contents
CASE REPORT  
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 24  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 493-494
Massive intrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor of the right hemithorax


1 Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA
2 Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Scottsdale, AZ, USA
3 Department of Surgery, Division of Thoracic Surgery, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, Rochester, MN, USA

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Date of Submission14-Jan-2020
Date of Decision25-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance10-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication18-Oct-2021
 

   Abstract 


Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura (SFTP) are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from visceral or parietal tissue. Surgical resection of massive SFTP can be complicated by airway collapse, vascular compression/hemodynamic instability, and hemorrhage. Patients with SFTP may also present with metabolic derangements secondary to paraneoplastic processes. We present a case of successful removal of massive right-sided SFTP via clamshell sternotomy and discuss the perioperative considerations for which providers should be familiar.

Keywords: Anesthesia, solitary fibrous tumor, thoracic surgery

How to cite this article:
Boswell MR, Smith BB, Wigle D, Rowse PG, Smith MM. Massive intrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor of the right hemithorax. Ann Card Anaesth 2021;24:493-4

How to cite this URL:
Boswell MR, Smith BB, Wigle D, Rowse PG, Smith MM. Massive intrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor of the right hemithorax. Ann Card Anaesth [serial online] 2021 [cited 2021 Nov 30];24:493-4. Available from: https://www.annals.in/text.asp?2021/24/4/493/328491





   Introduction Top


Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura (SFTP) are rare mesenchymal tumors that arise from visceral or parietal tissue and have been reported to grow as large as 6.9 kg.[1] In a review of 60 surgical resections of SFTP, 53 patients underwent thoracotomy, 6 underwent video-assisted thoracoscopy, and 1 required median sternotomy.[2] To our knowledge, no reports of successful massive SFTP excision via clamshell sternotomy have been published to date.[3] We present a case of successful removal of massive right-sided SFTP via clamshell sternotomy and discuss the perioperative considerations for which providers should be familiar.


   Case Description Top


A 51-year-old woman with biopsy-proven right-sided solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura (SFTP) presented with worsening dyspnea on exertion and hypoglycemia. Chest X-ray revealed complete opacification of the right hemithorax with leftward mediastinal shift [Figure 1]a. Computed tomography (CT) imaging revealed a large heterogeneous mass within the right pleural space causing collapse of the pulmonary vasculature and lung, along with cardiac shift and compression of the superior and inferior vena cava [Figure 1]b. Surgical resection via clamshell sternotomy was planned with exposure of femoral vasculature should the need arise for extracorporeal support. Following titrated anesthetic induction, intubation with a single-lumen endotracheal tube was performed given the complete collapse of the right mainstem bronchus. In addition to standard American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) monitors, vascular access was established in the right internal jugular vein, left femoral vein, and left radial and femoral arteries. A transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) probe was placed and revealed normal cardiac function without significant valvular heart disease. A balanced anesthetic was maintained throughout the case. Planned exposure of the right femoral artery and vein was performed prior to clamshell incision should cannulation for extracorporeal support be required. Clamshell exposure revealed focal, dense adhesions between the mass and the right upper lobe [Figure 1]c. Wedge resections of these adhesions resulted in hemorrhage (4,742 mL of estimated blood loss) requiring massive transfusion [2,591 mL red blood cell (RBC) salvage (via cell saver), 3,637 mL packed RBCs, 1,789 mL fresh frozen plasma, 465 mL cryoprecipitate, and 396 mL platelets]. The following shock states required active management during the case: Obstructive (due to compressive pathology of chest mass), hypovolemic (due to surgical hemorrhage), and distributive (due to systemic vasodilation and increased vascular permeability in the setting of perioperative inflammatory response).[4],[5] After control of bleeding and appropriate volume resuscitation, the patient remained hypotensive in the setting of a normal cardiac index/function via TEE assessment and required vasoactive infusions. In addition, the patient's intraoperative management was complicated by profound hypoglycemia (nadir glucose 29 mg/dL) which required ongoing dextrose therapy until mass resection. The case proceeded with successful surgical resection [Figure 1]d, and the patient was transported, intubated, and sedated to the intensive care unit. The patient was extubated on postoperative day (POD) 1 and discharged on POD 13 with follow-up CT imaging showing no evidence of residual disease.
Figure 1: Chest X-ray (a) demonstrating complete opacification of the right hemithorax. CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis (b) revealing leftward displacement of mediastinal structures, compression of the inferior and superior vena cava, and total collapse of the right lung. Surgical pathology in situ before (c) and after (d) right upper lobe wedge resection and removal of SFTP

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   Discussion Top


Perioperative management of patients presenting with massive SFTP can be challenging and requires multidisciplinary discussions and planning. Complications such as airway collapse, vascular compression/hemodynamic instability, and hemorrhage may be encountered. Proper planning for emergency resuscitative strategies such as extracorporeal support is essential given the risk of circulatory collapse. Patients with SFTP may also present with metabolic derangements. Refractory hypoglycemia secondary to secretion of insulin-like growth factor-2 in a paraneoplastic process named Doege–Potter syndrome and hypertrophic pulmonary osteoarthropathy have been described requiring provider familiarity when caring for this complex surgical cohort.[6],[7]

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form, the patient has given his consent for his images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patient understands that name and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Ershadi R, Rahim M, Abbasi M, Erfanian R. Giant solitary fibrous tumor of the pleura. J Surg Case Rep 2018;2018:rjy270.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Magdeleinat P, Alifano M, Petino A, Le Rochais JP, Dulmet E, Galateau F, et al. Solitary fibrous tumors of the pleura: Clinical characteristics, surgical treatment and outcome. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2002;21:1087-93.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Aydemir B, Celik S, Okay T, Dogusoy I. Intrathoracic giant solitary fibrous tumor. Am J Case Rep 2013;14:91-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Cremer J, Martin M, Redl H, Bahrami S, Abraham C, Graeter T, et al. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac operations. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:1714-20.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Standl T, Annecke T, Cascorbi I, Heller AR, Sabashnikov A, Teske W. The nomenclature, definition and distinction of types of shock. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018;115:757-68.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Karki A, Yang J, Chauhan S. Paraneoplastic syndrome associate with solitary fibrous tumor of pleura. Lung India 2018;35:245-7.  Back to cited text no. 6
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
7.
Fung EC, Crook MA. Doege-Potter syndrome and 'big-IGF2': A rare cause of hypoglycaemia. Ann Clin Biochem 2011;48:95-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    

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Correspondence Address:
Mark M Smith
Department of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine and Science, 200 First St SW, Rochester - 55905, MN
USA
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.ACA_14_20

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