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Analysis of anticoagulation therapy related complications in patients with prosthetic valves: Our experience


1 Department of CTVS, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of CTVS, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
4 Department of Cardiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Gurmeet Singh
Hero DMC Heart Institute, Civil Lines, Ludhiana, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_125_21

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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 67-72

 

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Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze anticoagulation-related complications in patients following mechanical valve replacement and factors influencing the outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 patients were analyzed during OPD follow-up for anticoagulation-related complications and various factors influencing outcome. Patients received prosthetic valve at mitral and/or aortic or both. Results: Out of 250 patients, 48% were male and 52% were female. The mean age was 41.9 ± 14.4. A total of 139 had mitral valve replacement (MVR), 70 had aortic valve replacement (AVR), 40 had double valve replacement (DVR), and 1 patient had triple valve replacement. Valves implanted were mechanical bileaflet valve. The mean international normalization ratio (INR) in the study was 2.4 ± 0.56. A total of 49 events occurred during follow-up, of which 4.5% per patient years were anticoagulation-related hemorrhagic events and 4.8% per patient years were thromboembolic events. Among thromboembolic events, valve thrombosis occurred in 10 patients and cerebrovascular accidents occurred in 11 patients. Mean INR for thromboembolic events was 1.46 ± 0.25 and anticoagulation-related hemorrhagic events was 4.4 ± 1.03. Mortality rate was 1.6% in AVR, 4% in MVR, and 0.4% in DVR groups; about 34% of patients needed dose modification of Acenocoumarol and reason for derangement of INR was associated with infectious process and poor compliance; 85% of cases showed good compliance for daily anticoagulation therapy. Conclusion: Anticoagulation for mechanical valve replacement can be managed with INR range of 2.0 to 2.5 in MVR and 1.5 to 2.0 in AVR with acceptable hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events. We must educate and counsel the patients during follow-up for better compliance to optimal anticoagulation.






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1 Department of CTVS, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of CTVS, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
4 Department of Cardiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Gurmeet Singh
Hero DMC Heart Institute, Civil Lines, Ludhiana, Punjab
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_125_21

Rights and Permissions

Purpose: The aim of this study is to analyze anticoagulation-related complications in patients following mechanical valve replacement and factors influencing the outcome. Materials and Methods: A total of 250 patients were analyzed during OPD follow-up for anticoagulation-related complications and various factors influencing outcome. Patients received prosthetic valve at mitral and/or aortic or both. Results: Out of 250 patients, 48% were male and 52% were female. The mean age was 41.9 ± 14.4. A total of 139 had mitral valve replacement (MVR), 70 had aortic valve replacement (AVR), 40 had double valve replacement (DVR), and 1 patient had triple valve replacement. Valves implanted were mechanical bileaflet valve. The mean international normalization ratio (INR) in the study was 2.4 ± 0.56. A total of 49 events occurred during follow-up, of which 4.5% per patient years were anticoagulation-related hemorrhagic events and 4.8% per patient years were thromboembolic events. Among thromboembolic events, valve thrombosis occurred in 10 patients and cerebrovascular accidents occurred in 11 patients. Mean INR for thromboembolic events was 1.46 ± 0.25 and anticoagulation-related hemorrhagic events was 4.4 ± 1.03. Mortality rate was 1.6% in AVR, 4% in MVR, and 0.4% in DVR groups; about 34% of patients needed dose modification of Acenocoumarol and reason for derangement of INR was associated with infectious process and poor compliance; 85% of cases showed good compliance for daily anticoagulation therapy. Conclusion: Anticoagulation for mechanical valve replacement can be managed with INR range of 2.0 to 2.5 in MVR and 1.5 to 2.0 in AVR with acceptable hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events. We must educate and counsel the patients during follow-up for better compliance to optimal anticoagulation.






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