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Intraoperative evaluation of renal resistive index with transesophageal echocardiography for the assessment of acute renal injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: A prospective observational study


1 Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Fellow Pediatric Cardiac Anaesthesia, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Cardiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
4 Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sunder Lal Negi
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, PGIMER, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_221_20

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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 158-163

 

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Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after on pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery and is associated with a poor prognosis. Postoperative AKI is associated with morbidity, mortality, and increase in length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and increases the financial burden. Identifying individuals at risk for developing AKI in postoperative period is extremely important to optimize outcomes. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between the intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) derived renal resistive index (RRI) and AKI in patients undergoing on-pump CABG surgery. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in patients more than 18 years of age undergoing elective on pump CABG surgery between July 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019, at a tertiary care center. All preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were recorded. TEE measurement was performed in hemodynamically stable patients before the sternum was opened. Postoperative AKI was diagnosed based on the serial measurement of serum creatinine and the monitoring of urine output. Results: A total of 115 patients were included in our study. Thirty-nine (33.91%) patients had RRI >0.7 while remaining seventy-six (66.08%) patients had RRI <0.7. AKI was diagnosed in 26% (30/115) patients. AKI rates were significantly higher in patients with RRI values exceeding 0.7 with 46.15% (18/39) compared to 15.75% (12/76) in RRI values of less than 0.7. Multivariate analysis revealed that AKI was associated with an increase in RRI and diabetes mellitus. The RRI assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) to distinguish between non-AKI and AKI groups were 0.705 (95% CI: 0.588–0.826) for preoperative RRI. The most accurate cut-off value to distinguish non-AKI and AKI groups was a preoperative RRI of 0.68 with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 67%. Conclusions: An increased intraoperative RRI is an independent predictor of AKI in the postoperative period in patients undergoing CABG surgery. The cutoff value of TEE-derived RRI in the intraoperative period should be >0.68 to predict AKI in the postoperative period.






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1 Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
2 Department of Fellow Pediatric Cardiac Anaesthesia, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
3 Department of Cardiology, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India
4 Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India

Correspondence Address:
Sunder Lal Negi
Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, PGIMER, Chandigarh - 160 012
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_221_20

Rights and Permissions

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after on pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery and is associated with a poor prognosis. Postoperative AKI is associated with morbidity, mortality, and increase in length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and increases the financial burden. Identifying individuals at risk for developing AKI in postoperative period is extremely important to optimize outcomes. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between the intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) derived renal resistive index (RRI) and AKI in patients undergoing on-pump CABG surgery. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in patients more than 18 years of age undergoing elective on pump CABG surgery between July 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019, at a tertiary care center. All preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were recorded. TEE measurement was performed in hemodynamically stable patients before the sternum was opened. Postoperative AKI was diagnosed based on the serial measurement of serum creatinine and the monitoring of urine output. Results: A total of 115 patients were included in our study. Thirty-nine (33.91%) patients had RRI >0.7 while remaining seventy-six (66.08%) patients had RRI <0.7. AKI was diagnosed in 26% (30/115) patients. AKI rates were significantly higher in patients with RRI values exceeding 0.7 with 46.15% (18/39) compared to 15.75% (12/76) in RRI values of less than 0.7. Multivariate analysis revealed that AKI was associated with an increase in RRI and diabetes mellitus. The RRI assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) to distinguish between non-AKI and AKI groups were 0.705 (95% CI: 0.588–0.826) for preoperative RRI. The most accurate cut-off value to distinguish non-AKI and AKI groups was a preoperative RRI of 0.68 with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 67%. Conclusions: An increased intraoperative RRI is an independent predictor of AKI in the postoperative period in patients undergoing CABG surgery. The cutoff value of TEE-derived RRI in the intraoperative period should be >0.68 to predict AKI in the postoperative period.






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