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Vascular access complications in patients undergoing veno-arterial ecmo and their impact on survival in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock: A retrospective 8-year study


1 Department of CTVS, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of CTVS, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
4 Department of Cardiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Samir Kapoor
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Civil Lines, Ludhiana, Punjab
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_22_22

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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 171-177

 

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Introduction: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is well-recognized treatment modality for patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. Uncomplicated cannulation is a prerequisite and basis for achieving a successful outcome in ECMO. Vascular access is obtained either by surgical cut-down. Common vascular access complications are bleeding and limb ischemia. Objective: To evaluate cannulation technique, the incidence of vascular complications, and their impact on the outcome. Methods: A retrospective data analysis conducted on 95 patients receiving ECMO from 2013 to 2020 was done. The patients were divided into two groups: no vascular access complications (non-VAC group) and vascular access complications (VAC group). The groups were compared related to the hospital and ICU stays and blood transfusion. Results: The patients in both groups were demographically and clinically comparable. The Non-VAC group had 75 patients, whereas the VAC group had a total of 20 patients. The main complication observed in the VAC group was bleeding from the cannulation site which required more blood transfusion than the non-VAC group (6.8 ± 1.02 vs 4.2 ± 1.26). Limb ischemia was another complication seen in the VAC group (4.2%, n = 4). Two patients had delayed bleeding after decannulation. The overall average length of stay in the hospital was statistically similar in both the groups (22 days in the VAC group vs 18 days in the non-VAC group), but the average ICU stay was more in the VAC group compared to the non-VAC group (18 days vs 12.06 days). Conclusion: Bleeding and limb ischemia are the important vascular access site complications, which increase blood transfusion requirements, ICU stay, and overall hospital stay.






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1 Department of CTVS, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Department of CTVS, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
4 Department of Cardiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India

Correspondence Address:
Samir Kapoor
Department of Cardiac Surgery, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Civil Lines, Ludhiana, Punjab
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_22_22

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is well-recognized treatment modality for patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. Uncomplicated cannulation is a prerequisite and basis for achieving a successful outcome in ECMO. Vascular access is obtained either by surgical cut-down. Common vascular access complications are bleeding and limb ischemia. Objective: To evaluate cannulation technique, the incidence of vascular complications, and their impact on the outcome. Methods: A retrospective data analysis conducted on 95 patients receiving ECMO from 2013 to 2020 was done. The patients were divided into two groups: no vascular access complications (non-VAC group) and vascular access complications (VAC group). The groups were compared related to the hospital and ICU stays and blood transfusion. Results: The patients in both groups were demographically and clinically comparable. The Non-VAC group had 75 patients, whereas the VAC group had a total of 20 patients. The main complication observed in the VAC group was bleeding from the cannulation site which required more blood transfusion than the non-VAC group (6.8 ± 1.02 vs 4.2 ± 1.26). Limb ischemia was another complication seen in the VAC group (4.2%, n = 4). Two patients had delayed bleeding after decannulation. The overall average length of stay in the hospital was statistically similar in both the groups (22 days in the VAC group vs 18 days in the non-VAC group), but the average ICU stay was more in the VAC group compared to the non-VAC group (18 days vs 12.06 days). Conclusion: Bleeding and limb ischemia are the important vascular access site complications, which increase blood transfusion requirements, ICU stay, and overall hospital stay.






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