Samir Kapoor1, Gurmeet Singh1, Rajesh Chand Arya2, Vikrampal Singh1, Arun Garg1, Sarju Ralhan3, Vivek Kumar Gupta2, Bishav Mohan4, Gurpreet Singh Wander4, Rajiv Kumar Gupta1
1 Department of CTVS, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
2 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
3 Chief Cardiac Surgeon, Hero DMC Heart Institute, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
4 Department of Cardiology, Dayanand Medical College & Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the effect of the pre-operative use of clopidogrel and aspirin on peri-operative bleeding, blood product transfusion, and resource utilization after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 patients who underwent off-pump CABG (OPCABG) between 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively studied. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1: discontinued aspirin and clopidogrel 6 days prior to surgery (n = 468), group 2: discontinued both drugs 3 to 5 days prior to surgery (n = 621), and group 3: discontinued both drugs 2 days prior to surgery (n = 111). The bleeding pattern and blood product transfusion were studied and compared between the groups. Patients having history of other drugs affecting the coagulation profile, other organ dysfunction, on-pump CABG, and the combined procedure were excluded from the study.
Results: Group 2 patients had a higher rate of bleeding and a reduced mean value of hemoglobin (Hb) as compared to other groups. The same results were seen in blood and blood product transfusion. Patients of group 2 and group 3 were associated with higher blood loss in terms of drainage at 12 and 24 hours. Post-operatively, this was statistically significant. Re-exploration was statisitically significant in group 3 patients (9.01%) than in group 2 (2.58%) and group 1 (1.07%) patients.
Conclusion: The pre-operative use of clopidogrel and aspirin in patients undergoing OPCABG showed limited clinical benefits; however, its use significantly increased the risk of bleeding and blood transfusion, thus increasing morbidity and resource utilization. Hence, clopidogrel and aspirin should be stopped at least 6 days prior to surgery.
Hero DMC Heart Institute, Civil Lines - 141 001, Ludhiana, Punjab
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
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