ACA App
Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Home | About us | Editorial Board | Search | Ahead of print | Current Issue | Archives | Submission | Subscribe | Advertise | Contact | Login 
Users online: 329 Small font size Default font size Increase font size Print this article Email this article Bookmark this page
 


 

 
     
    Advanced search
 

 
 
     
  
    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  


    Abstract
   Introduction
   Case Report
   Discussion
    References
    Article Figures
    Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed254    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded52    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal

 


 
Table of Contents
BRIEF COMMUNICATION  
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 371-373
Interrogation of superior vena cava by deep transgastric transesophageal echocardiography imaging: Clinical applications


Department of Cardiac Anesthesia, National Heart Center, Royal Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman

Click here for correspondence address and email

Date of Submission15-May-2021
Date of Decision15-Jul-2021
Date of Acceptance16-Jul-2021
Date of Web Publication05-Jul-2022
 

   Abstract 


The advantages of intraoperative deep transgastric interrogation by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) of the superior vena cava (SVC) in comparison to the standard bicaval view was studied in pediatric cardiac surgical cases. The view was found to be helpful in obtaining additional data in pediatric cardiac surgical patients.

Keywords: Echocardiography, transesophageal; vena cava, superior; diagnostic imaging

How to cite this article:
Arora NR, Maddali MM, Kaur C. Interrogation of superior vena cava by deep transgastric transesophageal echocardiography imaging: Clinical applications. Ann Card Anaesth 2022;25:371-3

How to cite this URL:
Arora NR, Maddali MM, Kaur C. Interrogation of superior vena cava by deep transgastric transesophageal echocardiography imaging: Clinical applications. Ann Card Anaesth [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 14];25:371-3. Available from: https://www.annals.in/text.asp?2022/25/3/371/349935





   Introduction Top


Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a reliable noninvasive method for imaging the superior vena cava (SVC).[1] Intraoperative TEE interrogation of the SVC by a modified deep transgastric view may provide clinically important information instantaneously.[2] In this case series, an attempt was made to identify the advantages of interrogating the SVC in a deep transgastric TEE view as compared to a mid-esophageal bicaval view. The Institutional Ethical Committee approval [SRC#CR8/2020] was obtained for the publication of this manuscript.


   Case Report Top


Perioperative TEE was performed in three children undergoing cardiac surgery with a preoperative diagnosis of a perimembranous ventricular septal defect (VSD), unbalanced atrioventricular canal defect (AVSD), and a superior sinus venosus atrial septal defect (SV-ASD), respectively [Table 1]. The standard guidelines were followed for obtaining the mid-esophageal bicaval TEE view.[3] The SVC, right atrium interrogation at the deep transgastric level was done by the clockwise rotation of the probe in the deep transgastric position, and opening the multiplane angle while maintaining the anteflexion [Videoclip 1].
Table 1: Demographic data

Click here to view



The bicaval TEE view in the child with the VSD displayed no defect in the atrial septum [Figure 1]a. In the child with the SV-ASD, the view displayed SVC overriding the fossa ovalis [Figure 1]a and [Figure 1]b.
Figure 1: (a and b). A mid-esophageal bicaval transesophageal echocardiography view with a Color Doppler blood flow map showing the superior and inferior vena cava and the interatrial septum (a) and 2D echocardiography displaying the sinus venosus atrial septal defect (b)

Click here to view


The deep transgastric interrogation with a Color Doppler blood flow map showed the venous return pattern [Figure 2]a. A pulse-wave Doppler signal analysis was also feasible [Figure 2]b. The position of the tip of a central venous catheter tip that was inserted through the left internal jugular vein in one of the children was ascertained [Figure 3]a. An agitated saline contrast injected into the left upper limb excluded the presence of a left SVC in the child with unbalanced AVSD undergoing a bidirectional Glenn shunt [Figure 3]b. In the same child, a considerable length of superior vena cava was visualized [Figure 3]c. In the child with partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage and a superior sinus SV-ASD, it was possible to interrogate a considerable length of SVC. The deep transgastric view could display simultaneously the SV-ASD as well as a secundum ASD in the same frame [Figure 3]d.
Figure 2: (a-c) Deep transgastric transesophageal echocardiography view of the superior vena cava showing a Color Doppler blood flow map of the venous blood flow through the superior vena cava (a), a view of the superior vena cava with the pulse-wave Doppler display (b), and a view of the superior vena cava with the continuous-wave Doppler analysis showing a residual gradient across the superior vena cava following the superior vena cava decannulation after the termination of the cardiopulmonary bypass (c)

Click here to view
Figure 3: (a-d) Deep transgastric 2D transesophageal echocardiography view of the superior vena cava displaying the position of the tip of a central venous catheter (a), a view of the superior vena cava showing an echo contrast entering the right atrium following a contrast injection into the left upper limb (b), a view of the superior vena cava in a patient with a single ventricle displaying the longer length of the superior vena cava that could be used for a Glenn creation (c), and a view of the superior vena cava displaying the sinus venosus atrial septal defect and a secundum atrial septal defect (d)

Click here to view


In pediatric cardiac surgical patients, direct SVC cannulation is done in the authors' institution to facilitate venous drainage from SVC as per the cardiac surgical protocol. On one such occasion, a residual gradient in the SVC following decannulation of a directly inserted cardiopulmonary bypass venous cannula was detected during intraoperative TEE examination in the deep transgastric view. A Color Doppler blood flow map across the SVC following the removal of the directly inserted venous cannula showed turbulence and a continuous-wave Doppler signal analysis revealed a residual gradient that was immediately corrected by the surgeon [Figure 2]c.


   Discussion Top


The deep transgastric imaging of the SVC may be useful both to the anesthesiologists and cardiac surgeons. The view may allow the optimal Doppler beam alignment as the SVC and the right atrium would be in the ideal plane for the Doppler beam interrogation. The SVC is a tubular structure about 7 cm long that is formed by the confluence of the right and left innominate veins.[4] A large extent of the distal SVC may be visualized preoperatively as well as postoperatively that may be advantageous during surgical procedures like a bidirectional Glenn operation. The Color Doppler blood flow mapping and pulse-wave Doppler signal analysis may be possible to visualize the venous return patterns as well as to identify the residual pressure gradients across the SVC-right atrial junction.

The deep transgastric imaging of the SVC may also be useful in identifying the presence of a left SVC when the LSVC is opening into the coronary sinus and when there is no bridging vein between the left and right SVC. A four-chamber TEE view may display a dilated coronary sinus. An agitated saline injection into the left upper arm veins or into the left-sided central veins may display the saline contrast entering the right atrium directly and not through the right SVC that may be appreciated in the deep transgastric TEE view.

In conclusion, the deep transgastric TEE view of the SVC is clinically useful. The probable difficulties that may be encountered that would interfere with proper visualization are (i) poor contact of the probe with the cephalad aspect of the stomach, (ii) air in the stomach, (iii) use of inadequate contact jelly, and (iv) lack of experience. There is a deep learning curve that can be a practical impediment but once honed, it could be a really useful adjunct to our routine transesophageal views.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
   References Top

1.
Shapiro MA, Johnson M, Steven B. A retrospective experience of right atrial and superior vena caval thrombi diagnosed by transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2002;15:76-9.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Aggarwal N, Unnikrishnan KP, Raman Suneel P, Mathew T. Modified deep transgastric bicaval view for revealing superior vena caval obstruction in a patient undergoing sinus venosus atrial septal defect repair: A case report. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth 2016;30:729-32.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Puchalski MD, Lui GK, Miller-Hance WC, Brook MM, Young LT, Bhat A, et al. Guidelines for performing a comprehensive transesophageal echocardiographic: Examination in children and all patients with congenital heart disease: Recommendations from the American Society of Echocardiography. J Am Soc Echocardiogr 2019;32:173-215.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Khouzam RN, Minderman D, D'Cruz IA. Echocardiography of the superior vena cava. Clin Cardiol 2005;28:362-6.  Back to cited text no. 4
    

Top
Correspondence Address:
Madan Mohan Maddali
Senior Consultant in Cardiac Anesthesia, National Heart Center, Royal Hospital, P.B.No: 1331, P.C: 111. Seeb, Muscat
Sultanate of Oman
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_63_21

Rights and Permissions


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1]



 

Top