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A retrospective analysis of the incidence, outcome and factors associated with the occurrence of euglycemic ketoacidosis in diabetic patients on sodium glucose co-transporter – 2 inhibitors undergoing cardiac surgery


1 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, G. Kuppusamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, G. Kuppusamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, G. Kuppusamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Karthik Babu Murugesan
80/2, First Street, Mahalakshmi Nagar, Masakalipalayam, Coimbatore - 641 015, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_47_21

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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 25  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 460-465

 

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Introduction: SGLT2i is a new class of drugs used for type 2 diabetes. SGLT2i are known to cause EuKA in the perioperative period. Euglycemic ketoacidosis (EuKA) can cause life-threatening metabolic acidosis in the perioperative setting. Though the event rate of SGLT2i associated diabetic ketoacidosis in nonoperative setting is low, incidence among peri-operative patients can be very high and remains unknown. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the incidence, analyze outcome, and establish correlation between risk factors and EuKA in cardiac surgical patients on SGLT2i. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study analyzing 24 cardiac surgical patients who were on SGLT2i for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data collection included age, sex, BMI, preoperative HbA1C, albumin, creatinine, type of SGLT2i and timing of stopping before surgery, insulin administration in the immediate pre-operative period; use of CPB, GI infusion and inotropes in the intraoperative period; blood ketone, duration of ventilation, hydration status and length of postoperative stay in postoperative period. Patients were diagnosed to have EuKA if any one of the serially measured postoperative ketone values was more than 0.6 mmol/L (ketone positive). The collected data were used to find an association between the risk factors and the occurrence of EuKA. Results: Of the 24 patients, 17 patients developed EuKA. (70.8.%). 10 of the 17 EuKA in our study required preoperative Insulin for diabetic control whereas none in the ketone negative patients required insulin. This was statistically significant (P = 0.019). Association of other factors to EuKA were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Though the event rate of SGLT2i associated Diabetic ketoacidosis in nonoperative setting is low, (17), the occurrence of EUKA in cardiac surgical patients on SGLT2i in our study was 70.8% (17 out of 24 patients). Patients who require insulin in addition to other oral hypoglycemic drugs for immediate preoperative glycemic control are at risk for the development of SGLT2 inhibitor-induced EuKA postoperatively. Missing the diagnosis of EuKA is fatal in these patients. We couldn't make a diagnosis in our first patient whom we lost. Since it was diagnosed in all our study patients by measuring serial ketone values, there was no mortality and insignificant morbidity. Cessation of SGLT2i before surgery, expectant watch for blood ketones, and treatment with GI infusion reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgical patients.






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1 Department of Cardiac Anaesthesia, G. Kuppusamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
2 Department of Endocrinology, G. Kuppusamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India
3 Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, G. Kuppusamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Karthik Babu Murugesan
80/2, First Street, Mahalakshmi Nagar, Masakalipalayam, Coimbatore - 641 015, Tamil Nadu
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_47_21

Rights and Permissions

Introduction: SGLT2i is a new class of drugs used for type 2 diabetes. SGLT2i are known to cause EuKA in the perioperative period. Euglycemic ketoacidosis (EuKA) can cause life-threatening metabolic acidosis in the perioperative setting. Though the event rate of SGLT2i associated diabetic ketoacidosis in nonoperative setting is low, incidence among peri-operative patients can be very high and remains unknown. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the incidence, analyze outcome, and establish correlation between risk factors and EuKA in cardiac surgical patients on SGLT2i. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study analyzing 24 cardiac surgical patients who were on SGLT2i for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data collection included age, sex, BMI, preoperative HbA1C, albumin, creatinine, type of SGLT2i and timing of stopping before surgery, insulin administration in the immediate pre-operative period; use of CPB, GI infusion and inotropes in the intraoperative period; blood ketone, duration of ventilation, hydration status and length of postoperative stay in postoperative period. Patients were diagnosed to have EuKA if any one of the serially measured postoperative ketone values was more than 0.6 mmol/L (ketone positive). The collected data were used to find an association between the risk factors and the occurrence of EuKA. Results: Of the 24 patients, 17 patients developed EuKA. (70.8.%). 10 of the 17 EuKA in our study required preoperative Insulin for diabetic control whereas none in the ketone negative patients required insulin. This was statistically significant (P = 0.019). Association of other factors to EuKA were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Though the event rate of SGLT2i associated Diabetic ketoacidosis in nonoperative setting is low, (17), the occurrence of EUKA in cardiac surgical patients on SGLT2i in our study was 70.8% (17 out of 24 patients). Patients who require insulin in addition to other oral hypoglycemic drugs for immediate preoperative glycemic control are at risk for the development of SGLT2 inhibitor-induced EuKA postoperatively. Missing the diagnosis of EuKA is fatal in these patients. We couldn't make a diagnosis in our first patient whom we lost. Since it was diagnosed in all our study patients by measuring serial ketone values, there was no mortality and insignificant morbidity. Cessation of SGLT2i before surgery, expectant watch for blood ketones, and treatment with GI infusion reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgical patients.






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