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Comparison of glucose control by added liraglutide to only insulin infusion in diabetic patient undergoing cardiac surgery: A preliminary randomized-controlled trial


1 Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama IV, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama IV, Bangkok, Thailand

Correspondence Address:
Wacharin Sindhvananda
Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama IV, Bangkok - 10330
Thailand
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_214_20

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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 26  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 63-71

 

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Background: Liraglutide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has been investigated for safety and effectiveness for blood glucose (BG) control in a surgical setting. However, there are only a few studies specific to cardiac surgery patients. Aims: To primarily compare perioperative 1) BG and 2) glycemic variability (GV) between added liraglutide and only insulin infusion in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Setting and Design: A randomized control trial was conducted in DM patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Inclusion criteria were age 20–80 years and DM Type 2. Material and Methods: The recruited patients were randomly assigned to Group 1 (added liraglutide with insulin infusion) and Group 2 (insulin infusion). Insulin infusion was based on institutional protocol. Point of care testing (POCT) glucose was used for the adjustment of insulin and BG analysis. Continuous glucose monitor (CGM) was for GV analysis (using Standard deviation: SD). Statistics: t-test, Chi-square or Fisher-exact test, or Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Finally, 60 patients were in our study (Group 1 = 32 vs Group 2 = 28). Perioperative mean BG levels of Group 1 were significantly lower than Group 2 with a mean difference of 15.9 mg/dL. Nine patients (18.7% vs 10.7%, P = 0.384) had BG of 60–70 with mean BGs (109.1 vs 147.9, P = 0.001) in the morning. Thirteen patients (9.4% vs 35.7%, P = 0.025) had BG >180 mg/dL at the 1st operative hour. SDs were increasing, but lower SD of Group 1 were observed at the postoperative period. Mean of SDs at postoperative day 2 were 23.65 vs 32.79 mg/dL, P = 0.018. Conclusions: Liraglutide added with insulin infusion can attenuate perioperative BG and is beneficial in the aspect of lowering GV together with BG at the postoperative period in DM patients. Liraglutide can be applied in cardiac surgery but a rearrangement of time and dosage should be further investigated.






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1 Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama IV, Bangkok, Thailand
2 Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama IV, Bangkok, Thailand

Correspondence Address:
Wacharin Sindhvananda
Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Rama IV, Bangkok - 10330
Thailand
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/aca.aca_214_20

Rights and Permissions

Background: Liraglutide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, has been investigated for safety and effectiveness for blood glucose (BG) control in a surgical setting. However, there are only a few studies specific to cardiac surgery patients. Aims: To primarily compare perioperative 1) BG and 2) glycemic variability (GV) between added liraglutide and only insulin infusion in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Setting and Design: A randomized control trial was conducted in DM patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Inclusion criteria were age 20–80 years and DM Type 2. Material and Methods: The recruited patients were randomly assigned to Group 1 (added liraglutide with insulin infusion) and Group 2 (insulin infusion). Insulin infusion was based on institutional protocol. Point of care testing (POCT) glucose was used for the adjustment of insulin and BG analysis. Continuous glucose monitor (CGM) was for GV analysis (using Standard deviation: SD). Statistics: t-test, Chi-square or Fisher-exact test, or Mann–Whitney U test. Results: Finally, 60 patients were in our study (Group 1 = 32 vs Group 2 = 28). Perioperative mean BG levels of Group 1 were significantly lower than Group 2 with a mean difference of 15.9 mg/dL. Nine patients (18.7% vs 10.7%, P = 0.384) had BG of 60–70 with mean BGs (109.1 vs 147.9, P = 0.001) in the morning. Thirteen patients (9.4% vs 35.7%, P = 0.025) had BG >180 mg/dL at the 1st operative hour. SDs were increasing, but lower SD of Group 1 were observed at the postoperative period. Mean of SDs at postoperative day 2 were 23.65 vs 32.79 mg/dL, P = 0.018. Conclusions: Liraglutide added with insulin infusion can attenuate perioperative BG and is beneficial in the aspect of lowering GV together with BG at the postoperative period in DM patients. Liraglutide can be applied in cardiac surgery but a rearrangement of time and dosage should be further investigated.






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