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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2022
Volume 25 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 131-250

Online since Monday, April 11, 2022

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EDITORIAL  

Time to say goodbye…. Highly accessed article p. 131
Prabhat Tewari
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_58_22  PMID:35417956
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

The neurocognitive outcomes of hemodilution in adult patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting using cardiopulmonary bypass Highly accessed article p. 133
Rabie Soliman, Dalia Saad, Walid Abukhudair, Sabry Abdeldayem
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_206_20  PMID:35417957
Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of mild and moderate hemodilution during CPB on the neurocognitive dysfunction in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Design: A randomized clinical study. Setting: Cardiac center. Patients: 186 patients scheduled for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Intervention: The patients were classified into 2 groups (each = 93), Mild hemodilution group: The hematocrit value was maintained >25% by transfusion of packed-red blood cells plus hemofiltration during CPB. Moderate hemodilution group: the hematocrit value was maintained within the range of 21-25%. Measurements: The monitors included the hemofiltrated volume, number of transfused packed red blood cells, and the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Main Results: The hemofiltrated volume during CPB was too much higher with mild hemodilution compared to the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001). The number of the transfused packed red blood cells during CPB was higher with mild hemodilution compared to the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001), but after CPB, the number of the transfused packed red blood cells was lower with the mild hemodilution group than the moderate hemodilution (p = 0.001). The incidence of total postoperative neurological complications was significantly lower with the mild hemodilution group than moderate hemodilution (p = 0.033). The incidence of neurocognitive dysfunction was significantly lower with mild hemodilution group than moderate hemodilution (p = 0.042). Conclusions: The mild hemodilution was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of neurocognitive dysfunction compared to moderate hemodilution in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Also, the transfused packed red blood cells increased during CPB and decreased after CPB with the mild hemodilution than moderate hemodilution.
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Intravenous iron supplementation treats anemia and reduces blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting—A prospective randomized trial Highly accessed article p. 141
Hoda Shokri, Ihab Ali
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_209_20  PMID:35417958
Study Objective: Preoperative anemia results in two- to sixfold increased incidence of perioperative blood transfusion requirements and reduced postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level. This prospective study was designed to investigate the effect of preoperative intravenous infusion of iron on Hb levels, blood transfusion requirements, and incidence of postoperative adverse events in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Design: Prospective randomized trial. Setting: Academic university hospital. Patients: Eighty patients (52–67 years old) underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and received either iron therapy or saline infusion preoperatively. Interventions: Patients were randomly allocated to iron or placebo groups. In the iron group, patients received a single intravenous dose of ferric carboxymaltose (1000 mg in 100 mL saline) infused slowly over 15 min 7 days before surgery. In placebo group, patients received a single intravenous dose of saline (100 mL saline) infused slowly over 15 min 7 days before surgery. Measurements: Patients were followed up with regards to incidence of anemia, Hb level on admission, preoperatively, postoperatively, 1 week and 4 weeks after discharge, aortic cross-clamp time, the number of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) units, the percentage of reticulocytes pre–postoperatively and 1 week later, hospital stay and intensive care unit (ICU) stay length, and the incidence of postoperative complications. Main Results: Iron therapy was associated with lower incidence of anemia 4 weeks after discharge (P < 0.001). Hb level was significantly higher in the iron group compared to the placebo group preoperatively and postoperatively, and 4 weeks after discharge (P < 0.001). Iron therapy resulted in shorter hospital and ICU stay (P < 0.001) and shorter aortic cross-clamp time, reduced pRBCs requirements postoperatively. Percentage of reticulocytes was significantly higher in placebo group than in iron group postoperatively and 1 week after discharge and the incidence of postoperative complications was similar to the placebo group. Conclusions: Preoperative IV iron infusion is a safe and feasible way to manage preoperative anemia. Preoperative administration of IV iron is associated with a higher postoperative Hb level, shorter hospital and ICU stay, and reduced perioperative red blood cell transfusion requirements with insignificant difference in incidence of postoperative complications.
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Use of Fogarty catheter as bronchial blocker for lung isolation in children undergoing thoracic surgery: A single centre experience of 15 cases Highly accessed article p. 148
Bikram K Behera, Satyajeet Misra, Manoj K Mohanty, Bikasha B Tripathy
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_219_20  PMID:35417959
Background and Aim: Various devices such as single lumen tubes, balloon-tipped bronchial blockers, and double-lumen tubes can be used for lung isolation in children, but no particular device is ideal. As such, there is a wide variation in lung isolation techniques employed by anaesthesiologists in this cohort of patients. This study aims to describe our experience with Fogarty catheters for lung isolation in children. Methods: This was a single centre, retrospective review of 15 children, below the age of 8 years, undergoing thoracic surgeries and requiring lung isolation. Demographic details, clinical parameters, complications during Fogarty catheter placement, number of attempts for placement, time taken for satisfactory lung isolation, and intraoperative complications were collected. Results: Successful lung isolation was achieved in all 15 children with Fogarty catheters of various sizes with the help of flexible bronchoscopy. Desaturation and bradycardia were the commonest complications seen during placement of the catheters but resolved with bag-mask ventilation. On average, 2 attempts were required for successful Fogarty placement. The mean time for successful lung isolation was 6.9 ± 1.3 minutes. The commonest intraoperative complication noted was desaturation, which resolved with an increase in FiO2 and positive end expiratory pressure. 2 children had migration of the device proximally to the trachea causing airway obstruction. The devices were successfully repositioned in both cases. Conclusion: Fogarty catheters can be used for successful lung isolation in children less than 8 years of age, undergoing thoracic surgery.
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Epidural analgesia and abnormal coagulation in patients undergoing minimal invasive repair of pectus excavatum p. 153
Ara S Media, Frank V de Paoli, Hans K Pilegaard, Anne-Mette Hvas, Peter Juhl-Olsen, Thomas D Christensen
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_115_21  PMID:35417960
Background: Epidural analgesia (EA) is effective in patients undergoing minimal invasive repair of pectus excavatum (MIRPE) but is associated with major complications such as epidural hematomas. It is recommended to assess coagulation status in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy prior to EA, although no consensus exists in patients without a history of bleeding tendency or anticoagulant therapy. Thus, the aim of this paper was to assess 1) the prevalence of abnormal routine coagulation parameters, i.e., international normalized ratio (INR) and platelet count, and 2) the safety of EA in patients undergoing MIRPE. Methods: In this retrospective study, we identified 1,973 patients undergoing MIRPE at our center between 2001 and 2019. Complications related to EA were registered for all patients. Information on coagulation parameters was present in 929 patients. Patients with spontaneously elevated INR ≥1.5 were referred for assessment of coagulation factor VII in order to assess the cause of the elevated INR. Results: Of 929 patients with coagulation information available, 18 patients had spontaneously elevated INR ≥1.5 (1.9%). In patients with INR ≥1.5, 12 patients underwent further assessment of factor VII, with all patients having a slightly reduced factor VII close to the lower reference range. The majority of the 1,973 patients undergoing MIRPE received EA (99.6%) with very low complication rates (0.2%) and no incidence of epidural hematomas. Conclusion: In patients undergoing MIRPE, coagulation screening prior to EA should not be mandatory as it revealed no clinically relevant consequences. EA is safe with very low complication rates.
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Intraoperative evaluation of renal resistive index with transesophageal echocardiography for the assessment of acute renal injury in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: A prospective observational study p. 158
Kamal Kajal, Rajeev Chauhan, Sunder Lal Negi, KP Gourav, Prashant Panda, Sachin Mahajan, Rashi Sarna
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_221_20  PMID:35417961
Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after on pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery and is associated with a poor prognosis. Postoperative AKI is associated with morbidity, mortality, and increase in length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and increases the financial burden. Identifying individuals at risk for developing AKI in postoperative period is extremely important to optimize outcomes. The aim of the study is to evaluate the association between the intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) derived renal resistive index (RRI) and AKI in patients undergoing on-pump CABG surgery. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted in patients more than 18 years of age undergoing elective on pump CABG surgery between July 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019, at a tertiary care center. All preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were recorded. TEE measurement was performed in hemodynamically stable patients before the sternum was opened. Postoperative AKI was diagnosed based on the serial measurement of serum creatinine and the monitoring of urine output. Results: A total of 115 patients were included in our study. Thirty-nine (33.91%) patients had RRI >0.7 while remaining seventy-six (66.08%) patients had RRI <0.7. AKI was diagnosed in 26% (30/115) patients. AKI rates were significantly higher in patients with RRI values exceeding 0.7 with 46.15% (18/39) compared to 15.75% (12/76) in RRI values of less than 0.7. Multivariate analysis revealed that AKI was associated with an increase in RRI and diabetes mellitus. The RRI assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under the curve (AUC) to distinguish between non-AKI and AKI groups were 0.705 (95% CI: 0.588–0.826) for preoperative RRI. The most accurate cut-off value to distinguish non-AKI and AKI groups was a preoperative RRI of 0.68 with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 67%. Conclusions: An increased intraoperative RRI is an independent predictor of AKI in the postoperative period in patients undergoing CABG surgery. The cutoff value of TEE-derived RRI in the intraoperative period should be >0.68 to predict AKI in the postoperative period.
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Long-term performance of untreated fresh autologous pericardium as a valve substitute in pulmonary position p. 164
Shantanu Pande, Amitabh Arya, Surendra K Agarwal, Prabhat Tewari, Aditya Kapoor, Neetu Soni, Sunil Kumar
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_22_21  PMID:35417962
Background: Pulmonary regurgitation is imminent after transannular patch (TAP). We analyze the long-term performance of untreated autologous pericardium (UAP) as valve substitute at pulmonary position in patients requiring TAP. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study include patients operated between 2007 and 2012 (n = 92). A sample of 19 patients was selected for this study which had a follow-up of more than 3 years. This includes patients with no TAP (n = 4) and with TAP and valve substitute, a monocusp (n = 11) or a tricuspid valve (n = 4) at neopulmonary annulus. Patients underwent echocardiography for assessment of right ventricle function and 18 fluoro-deoxyglucose PET CT scan for measurements of valve substitute at neopulmonary annulus. The target to blood ratio (TBR) of uptake of glucose by monocusp was measured at the cooptation edge of the neopulmonary valve. Results: The median age of the patients is 14 (9 – 37). RV function is preserved (TAPSE 18.9 (10.6 – 22.8)) at a mean follow-up of 4 years (3-9). The measurements of monocusp shows a shrinkage in height of the cusp by 35.5% (70% – 1.0%) and length by 7% (-44% - +104%). There was less shrinkage observed in patients below 15 years of age. The TBR of monocusp was 0.945 (0.17 – 3.35) with a strong correlation between the TBR values of aortic valve leaflet and monocusp leaflet of same patient. Conclusion: The UAP is functional and successful as a valve substitute at neo pulmonary annulus at long-term follow-up. It has resisted calcification and has shown uptake of glucose in physiological limits.
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Vascular access complications in patients undergoing veno-arterial ecmo and their impact on survival in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock: A retrospective 8-year study p. 171
Vikrampal Singh, Gurmeet Singh, Rajesh Chand Arya, Samir Kapoor, Arun Garg, Sarju Ralhan, Vivek K Gupta, Bishav Mohan, Gurpreet Singh Wander, Rajiv K Gupta
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_22_22  PMID:35417963
Introduction: Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is well-recognized treatment modality for patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. Uncomplicated cannulation is a prerequisite and basis for achieving a successful outcome in ECMO. Vascular access is obtained either by surgical cut-down. Common vascular access complications are bleeding and limb ischemia. Objective: To evaluate cannulation technique, the incidence of vascular complications, and their impact on the outcome. Methods: A retrospective data analysis conducted on 95 patients receiving ECMO from 2013 to 2020 was done. The patients were divided into two groups: no vascular access complications (non-VAC group) and vascular access complications (VAC group). The groups were compared related to the hospital and ICU stays and blood transfusion. Results: The patients in both groups were demographically and clinically comparable. The Non-VAC group had 75 patients, whereas the VAC group had a total of 20 patients. The main complication observed in the VAC group was bleeding from the cannulation site which required more blood transfusion than the non-VAC group (6.8 ± 1.02 vs 4.2 ± 1.26). Limb ischemia was another complication seen in the VAC group (4.2%, n = 4). Two patients had delayed bleeding after decannulation. The overall average length of stay in the hospital was statistically similar in both the groups (22 days in the VAC group vs 18 days in the non-VAC group), but the average ICU stay was more in the VAC group compared to the non-VAC group (18 days vs 12.06 days). Conclusion: Bleeding and limb ischemia are the important vascular access site complications, which increase blood transfusion requirements, ICU stay, and overall hospital stay.
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Prospective national audit of major gastrointestinal complications of transesophageal echocardiography studies in children p. 178
Tim Murphy, Alan McCheyne
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_275_20  PMID:35417964
Background: Perioperative trans-esophageal echocardiography ('TEE') is widely used for the assessment of anatomy/repair of congenital cardiac defects. It is recognised that there are risks associated with its use. Aims: We wished, by means of a contemporaneous prospective national audit over a six-month period, to establish what proportion of TEE studies in children are complicated by major upper gastrointestinal or upper aerodigestive tract trauma. Methods: After obtaining appropriate local institutional ethics committee approval, a national prospective audit of the rate and severity of gastrointestinal complications of trans-esophageal echocardiography studies in anaesthetised adult cardiology and cardiac surgical patients was conducted by the Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesia and Critical Care in the United Kingdom and Ireland during the twelve months of 2017. During the second six months of the audit, the Congenital Cardiac Anaesthesia Network (an organisation including anaesthetists with a paediatric cardiac anaesthetic practice in all the United Kingdom cardiac surgical centres) prospectively audited the incidence of such complications of TEE studies in children. Results: A total of 1,059 studies were included in this six-month paediatric audit. There were no reports of the specified major complication. Statistical Analysis: The zero incidence of the major complication is consistent with a worst possible incidence of five per thousand TEE examinations. Conclusions: Such potentially reassuring information could be included in discussions with patients or families about the risk of trans-esophageal studies in children.
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Effect of anti-platelet therapy on peri-operative blood loss in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting p. 182
Samir Kapoor, Gurmeet Singh, Rajesh Chand Arya, Vikrampal Singh, Arun Garg, Sarju Ralhan, Vivek Kumar Gupta, Bishav Mohan, Gurpreet Singh Wander, Rajiv Kumar Gupta
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_12_22  PMID:35417965
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to review the effect of the pre-operative use of clopidogrel and aspirin on peri-operative bleeding, blood product transfusion, and resource utilization after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Materials and Methods: A total of 1200 patients who underwent off-pump CABG (OPCABG) between 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively studied. Patients were divided into three groups: group 1: discontinued aspirin and clopidogrel 6 days prior to surgery (n = 468), group 2: discontinued both drugs 3 to 5 days prior to surgery (n = 621), and group 3: discontinued both drugs 2 days prior to surgery (n = 111). The bleeding pattern and blood product transfusion were studied and compared between the groups. Patients having history of other drugs affecting the coagulation profile, other organ dysfunction, on-pump CABG, and the combined procedure were excluded from the study. Results: Group 2 patients had a higher rate of bleeding and a reduced mean value of hemoglobin (Hb) as compared to other groups. The same results were seen in blood and blood product transfusion. Patients of group 2 and group 3 were associated with higher blood loss in terms of drainage at 12 and 24 hours. Post-operatively, this was statistically significant. Re-exploration was statisitically significant in group 3 patients (9.01%) than in group 2 (2.58%) and group 1 (1.07%) patients. Conclusion: The pre-operative use of clopidogrel and aspirin in patients undergoing OPCABG showed limited clinical benefits; however, its use significantly increased the risk of bleeding and blood transfusion, thus increasing morbidity and resource utilization. Hence, clopidogrel and aspirin should be stopped at least 6 days prior to surgery.
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Comparison of effects of sevoflurane versus propofol on left ventricular longitudinal global and regional strain in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting p. 188
GN Chennakeshavallu, Shrinivas Gadhinglajkar, Rupa Sreedhar, Saravana Babu, Sruthi Sankar, Prasanta Kumar Dash
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_240_20  PMID:35417966
Background: Assessment of myocardial deformation by quantifying peak systolic longitudinal strain (PSLS) is a sensitive and robust index to detect subclinical myocardial dysfunction. We hypothesize that sevoflurane by virtue of anesthetic preconditioning preserves myocardial function better than propofol. Aims: The authors have assessed the effects of sevoflurane and propofol on global longitudinal strain (GLS) as a primary outcome in patients undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting. Our secondary aim was to assess the pattern of regional distribution of segmental PSLS between the groups. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with normal left ventricular function undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were analyzed in this prospective observational study. Consecutive patients received either propofol (P) or sevoflurane (S) anesthesia. Measurements: Trans-esophageal echocardiographic images (mid-esophageal four-chamber, two-chamber, and three-chamber (long-axis)) were recorded during the precardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and post-CPB period. Strain analysis (GLS/segmental PSLS) was done offline by investigators blinded to the study. The inotropic score, duration of inotropic support, and mechanical ventilation required were recorded. Results: Following cardiopulmonary bypass and coronary revascularization, GLS reduced significantly in both the groups (P < 0.05). In the S-group, significant reduction in segmental strain was observed only in apical segments including apex, whereas in P-group significant reduction in segmental strain was seen in mid- and apical segments. The postoperative VIS, duration of inotropes/vasopressor required, and mechanical ventilation were similar in both the groups. Conclusions: There are no significant differences in global left ventricular function as assessed by GLS between patients anesthetized with sevoflurane or propofol. However, regional PSLS was better preserved in the S-group compared to P-group.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATIONS Top

Use of balanced solutions is prudent as the mainstay of fluid management in off pump coronary surgery p. 196
Amarja S Nagre, Abhijeet Kabade, Mahesh Chaudhari
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_229_20  PMID:35417967
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Comparison between 2D and 3D echocardiography for quantitative assessment of mitral regurgitation: Current status p. 198
Sudhakar Subramani
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_238_20  PMID:35417968
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Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy and pulmonary haemorrhage p. 200
Andrew J Roscoe, Nian Chih Hwang
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_247_20  PMID:35417969
Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery is the recommended treatment for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Massive intraoperative pulmonary haemorrhage with bleeding into the airway is a rare complication, and it typically presents as cardiopulmonary bypass flow is reduced and blood begins to flow through the pulmonary circulation. Immediate management includes maintaining extracorporeal circulation to reduce blood flow through the pulmonary circulation, isolation of the affected lung, while the surgeon identifies and repairs the site of haemorrhage.
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BRIEF COMMUNICATION Top

Multiplane imaging: A quick way to assess prosthetic aortic valve p. 202
Pushkar Mahendra Desai, Rahul Vijaykumar Shabadi, Suresh Chengode, Nasser Al-Kemyani
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_254_20  PMID:35417970
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INTERESTING IMAGE Top

Cardiac tamponade in a patient supported by veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation p. 204
Troy G Seelhammer, Theodore O Loftsgard, Erica D Wittwer, Matthew J Ritter
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_223_20  PMID:35417971
Cardiac tamponade occurring in a patient supported on central veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is depicted in a transesophageal echocardiography image and associated rendering. Prompt recognition of tamponade, which can be assisted with echocardiography, and emergent evacuation is critical to restoring cardiovascular stability.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Management of perioperative anticoagulation in a patient with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome undergoing cardiac surgery: A case report p. 206
Sanjana A Malviya, Yi Deng, Sayyed O Gilani, Alec A Hendon, Melissa A Nikolaidis, Micah S Moseley
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_228_20  PMID:35417972
Patients with Antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) are at high risk for both bleeding and thrombotic complications during cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In this case we present a patient with APLS and Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura who successfully underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR) with CPB despite recent craniotomy for subdural hematoma evacuation. Anticoagulation for CPB was monitored by targeting an Activated Clotting Time (ACT) that was 2× the upper limit of normal. A multidisciplinary approach was essential in ensuring a safe and successful operation.
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Diagnostic lacunae and implications of an automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in a child with type 3 Long QT (LQT3) syndrome p. 210
Madan M Maddali, Pranav S Kandachar, Ismail A Al-Abri, Mohammed I Al-Yamani
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_13_21  PMID:35417973
A diagnosis of congenital long QT interval syndrome based on history and electrocardiogram was made in a child in the absence of readily available genetic testing. A genotype 3 (LQT3) was suspected after exclusion of other variants as the child was non-responsive to beta-blocker and sodium channel blocker medication. As the child continues to show episodic bradycardia, polymorphic ventricular ectopy, and T-wave alternans, a single-chamber automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation was done successfully. This report highlights how the diagnosis of LQT3 was arrived at as well as the anesthetic challenges in the management of patients with LQTS.
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Bronchial blocker and double-lumen endotracheal tube combination to facilitate lung isolation during esophagectomy p. 214
Hong Liang, Mathew Thomas, J Ross Renew
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_236_20  PMID:35417974
Lung isolation is an essential anesthetic technique utilized in thoracic surgeries. We present a patient undergoing esophagectomy that developed an iatrogenic injury to the left mainstem bronchus that damaged the bronchial cuff of a left-sided double-lumen endotracheal tube (DLETT). A bronchial blocker (BB) was placed in the tracheal lumen of the DLETT as a rescue method to facilitate continued lung isolation. This unusual combination of a DLETT and a BB proved useful once the bronchial cuff was compromised and may serve as a viable solution to maintain lung isolation in similar circumstances.
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The ProtekDuo as double lumen return cannula in V-VP ECMO configuration: A first-in-man method description Highly accessed article p. 217
Marc O Maybauer, Michael M Koerner, Mircea R Mihu, Michael D Harper, Aly El Banayosy
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_49_21  PMID:35417975
We present a case of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to COVID-19 who required venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO). Initially, a right ventricular assist device (RVAD), the ProtekDuo with an oxygenator, was placed in an outside heart center and the patient was transferred to us for ECMO management. Due to severe hypoxia, the configuration was later modified, and a 25 Fr femoral drainage cannula was inserted for venous drainage only. The arterial return tubing was spliced and using a Y-connector, arterialized blood was returned through both limbs of the ProtekDuo resulting in a significantly increased oxygenation and flow.
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Spindle-cell sarcoma of the heart: A case report of a rare cause of cardiac mass p. 220
Vaishali S Badge, Mangesh Kohale, Anand Patil, Akshay Revadekar
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_242_20  PMID:35417976
Spindle cell sarcoma of heart are the least reported primary cardiac tumours. We present a case of a 60-year-old man reported to us following successful resuscitation after cardiac arrest. This patient presented with symptoms of dyspnoea on exertion. The echocardiography showed features of cardiac tamponade. CT scan chest+ Abdomen + Pelvis confirmed echocardiography findings, and showed significant pericardial effusion with early cardiac tamponade. Patient continued to suffer dyspnoea even after pericardiocentesis and was unstable in the intensive care unit, hence he was shifted to operating room for re-exploration. The mass was excised in a piecemeal without instituting cardiopulmonary bypass. The total weight of the mass was approximately 500gms. The macroscopic examination of the specimen revealed a cystic mass with solid grey brown tissue. Following surgical debulking, chest X -ray in Intensive Care Unit showed improvement. The patient visited the outpatient clinic after 15 days of surgery. 2-D echocardiography revealed minimal pericardial effusion and patient was comfortable.
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Surgical embolectomy in a 34-week pregnant woman with high risk pulmonary embolism and haemodynamic instability p. 225
Giulia Maj, Nicola Strobelt, Andrea Audo, Anna Maria Arena, Giovanni Parodi, Vittorio Aguggia, Massimo Serra, Maria Giribaldi, Ermelinda Martuscelli, Fabrizio Racca
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_244_20  PMID:35417977
Pulmonary embolism represents the leading cause of maternal mortality in developed countries. The optimal treatment of high-risk pulmonary embolism with cardiovascular instability and at high hemorrhagic risk is still debated but surgical embolectomy represents an effective option. We describe the case of a 35-year-old woman in week 34 of pregnancy who was referred to our hospital because of exertional dyspnea and tachycardia and a few hours later became hypotensive and hypoxic. Pulmonary embolism was detected by performing an angio-computed tomography (CT) scan. After a successful cesarean section, emergent embolectomy was performed without inducing uterine hemorrhage. Both mother and the newborn recovered without postoperative sequelae.
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An unanticipated prolonged baseline ACT during cardiac surgery due to factor XII deficiency p. 229
Heleen J.C L. Apostel, Ben De Bie, Suzanne Kats, Jan-Uwe Schreiber
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_255_20  PMID:35417978
Factor XII (FXII) deficiency is a congenital disorder inherited as an autosomal recessive condition. In his heterozygous form, it is relatively common in the general population. However, a total absence of FXII as seen in homozygous patients, is rare, with an incidence of approximately 1/1,000,000 individuals. Surprisingly, FXII deficiency is rather associated with thromboembolic complications. Patients do not experience a higher risk of surgical bleeding despite a markedly prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. Given its low incidence in the general population, the finding of an unknown FXII deficiency is rare during cardiac surgery. This unique case describes a patient with an unanticipated prolonged baseline activated clotting time (ACT) during cardiac surgery in which his bleeding history and rotational thromboelastometry tracings lead us to the diagnosis of a FXII deficiency. The finding of a hypocoagulable INTEM tracing and a concurrent normal EXTEM tracing in a sample of a patient with prolonged ACT and adverse anamnestic bleeding history should prompt clinicians to consider a FXII deficiency. It may help clinicians in further perioperative management where there is not enough time to wait for the results of individual coagulation factor testing.
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Spinal anesthesia for open gastrostomy in an infant after stage I Norwood for hypoplastic left heart p. 233
Michael A Acquaviva, Doris M Hardacker, Senthil Packiasabapathy, Robert C Burns
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_262_20  PMID:35417979
Infants with hypoplastic left heart are at increased risk of adverse events including mortality when they undergo procedures with general anesthesia in the inter-stage period after stage I Norwood. This is primarily caused by an imbalance between pulmonary and systemic blood flows augmented by decreased function of the single ventricle. These factors can be aggravated by general anesthesia, hence the increased risk. Many of these infants experience feeding dysfunction and require a gastrostomy to optimize nutrition. We report a case of open gastrostomy in an infant with Norwood physiology under spinal anesthesia with an excellent outcome.
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Perioperative management of myasthenia gravis patient for off pump coronary artery bypass surgery and thymectomy p. 236
Amarja S Nagre, Abhijeet Kabade, Mahesh Chaudhari
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_273_20  PMID:35417980
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by antibody-mediated immunologic reaction striking the acetylcholine receptors. The anesthesia concerns for patients with MG include the disease state, drug interactions, and the anesthetic medications particularly the neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs). The anesthesia management in these patients is meticulous and requires appropriate execution of knowledge. Besides, such patient for off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery is quite uncommon; hence, we report this case.
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Ventricular septal defects in two dimensional imaging seen as a single defect on colour flow doppler imaging p. 240
Kartheek Hanumansetty, Azeez M Aspari, Don J Palamattam
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_126_21  PMID:35417981
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Intraoperative 3D TrueVue transesophageal echo imaging in cardiac mass: Bridge between cardiac anesthesiologist and surgeon p. 241
Camilla L'Acqua, Nora Piazzoni, Manuela Muratori, Valeria Mazzanti
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_213_20  PMID:35417982
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Artifact in central venous pressure waveform due to central venous catheter tip abutting the wall of superior vena cava p. 243
GN Chennakeshavallu, S Sruthi, Saravana Babu
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_241_20  PMID:35417983
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Securing central venous catheters: PT fixation technique p. 244
Syed S Ahmad, Kushal Hajela, Anand M Mammen
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_35_22  PMID:35417984
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Difficult transesophageal echocardiography probe insertion due to cervical diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis p. 246
Taisuke Kumamoto, Miki Araki
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_29_22  PMID:35417985
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Choosing the correct double-lumen tube: Why one size cannot fit all just yet p. 248
Gauri R Gangakhedkar
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_46_21  PMID:35417986
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Comparison of different size left-sided double-lumen p. 249
Raisa D Nguyen, Bryan J Hierlmeier, Lakshmi N Kurnutala, Michelle A Tucci
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_203_21  PMID:35417987
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Effects of Del Nido cardioplegia on coronary bypass surgery p. 250
Mehmet S Bademci, Cemal Kocaaslan, Fatih A Bayraktar, Ebuzer Aydin
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_3_21  PMID:35417988
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