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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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October-December 2022
Volume 25 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 381-535

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EDITORIAL  

Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) paradigm shift: Minimalistic approach with maximal efficiency! p. 381
Chirojit Mukherjee, Hartmut Buerkle, Torsten Loop
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_151_22  
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

The use of cerebral oximetry in cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Highly accessed article p. 384
Xin Hui Chiong, Zhen Zhe Wong, Siu Min Lim, Tyng Yan Ng, Ka Ting Ng
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_149_21  
High prevalence of cerebral desaturation is associated with postoperative neurological complications in cardiac surgery. However, the evidence use of cerebral oximetry by correcting cerebral desaturation in the reduction of postoperative complications remains uncertain in the literature. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine the effect of cerebral oximetry on the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in cardiac surgery. Databases of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL were searched from their inception until April 2021. All randomized controlled trials comparing cerebral oximetry and blinded/no cerebral oximetry in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery were included. Observational studies, case series, and case reports were excluded. A total of 14 trials (n = 2,033) were included in this review. Our pooled data demonstrated that patients with cerebral oximetry were associated with a lower incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction than the control group (studies = 4, n = 609, odds ratio [OR]: 0.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04 to 0.54, P = 0.003, I2 = 88%; certainty of evidence = very low). In terms of postoperative delirium (OR: 0.75, 95%CI: 0.50–1.14, P = 0.18, I2 = 0%; certainty of evidence = low) and postoperative stroke (OR: 0.81 95%CI: 0.37–1.80, P = 0.61, I2 = 0%; certainty of evidence = high), no significant differences (P > 0.05) were reported between the cerebral oximetry and control groups. In this meta-analysis, the use of cerebral oximetry monitoring in cardiac surgery demonstrated a lower incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction. However, this finding must be interpreted with caution due to the low level of evidence, high degree of heterogeneity, lack of standardized cognitive assessments, and cerebral desaturation interventions.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Intraoperative blood collection without fluid replacement for cardiac surgery – A retrospective analysis p. 399
Jennifer L Vance, Lisa Irwin, Elizabeth S Jewell, Milo Engoren
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_30_21  
Background: Transfusion rates in cardiac surgery are high. Aim: To determine if intraoperative autologous blood removal without volume replacement is associated with fewer homologous blood transfusions without increasing acute kidney injury. Setting and Design: Retrospective, comparative study. Materials and Methods: Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, excluding those who underwent ventricular assist device surgery, heart transplants, or cardiac surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass were excluded, who had 1–3 units of intraoperative autologous blood removal were compared to patients without blood removal for determination of volume replacement, vasopressor support, acute kidney injury, and transfusions. Results: Autologous blood removal was associated with fewer patients receiving homologous transfusions: intraoperative red cell transfusions fell from 75% (Control) to 48% (1 unit removed), 40% (2 units), and 30% (3 units), P < 0.001. Total intraoperative and postoperative homologous RBC units transfused were lower in the blood removal groups: median (interquartile range) 3 (1, 6) in Control patients and 0 (0, 2), 0 (0, 2) and 0 (0, 1) in the 1, 2, and 3 units removed groups, P < 0.001. Similarly, plasma, platelet, and cryoprecipitate transfusions decreased. After adjustment for confounders, increased amounts of autologous blood removal were associated with increased intravenous fluids, only when 2 units were removed, and trivially increased vasopressor use. However, it was not associated with acidosis or acute kidney injury. Conclusions: Intraoperative autologous blood removal without volume replacement of 1–3 units for later autologous transfusion is associated with decreased homologous transfusions without acidosis or acute kidney injury.
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Serum Gamma Glutamyltransferase (GGT) in coronary artery disease: Exploring the Asian Indian Connection p. 408
Kunal K Singh, Aditya Kapoor, Roopali Khanna, Ankit Sahu, Vishwas Kapoor, Sudeep Kumar, Naveen Garg, Satyendra Tewari, Pravin Goel
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_62_21  
Background: There is a need to identify novel markers for CAD, independent of traditional CV risk factors. One of these is gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a marker of increased oxidative stress. Given the high prevalence of CAD in Asian Indians, the link of GGT and CAD in them needs to be studied. Aim: To assess GGT in patients with angiographically documented CAD. Methods and Results: Two hundred patients aged 58.1 ± 9.95 years, 73% males, hypertension 56%, diabetes 40% were included. Mean GGT was 63.6 ± 44.33 (10–269 U/L). The levels of GGT progressively increased in those with single/double or triple-vessel CAD (36.5, 61.5, and 87 U/L, respectively, P < 0.001). Using objective criteria of CAD burden (SYNTAX and Gensini scores), we reaffirmed these findings. GGT in patients with SYNTAX tertiles 0–22, 23–32, and ≥ 33 was 33, 62, and 97 U/L, respectively and in Gensini tertiles 0–17.65, 17.66–56.65, ≥56.66 was 32, 52, and 88 U/L, respectively, all P < 0.001. SYNTAX score ≥ 23 was present in only 23% patients in GGT tertile 1 (<41 U/L), whereas60% and 94% in GGT tertiles 2 and 3 had SYNTAX ≥ 23. Significant positive correlation was seen between GGT and SYNTAX (r = 0.634) and Gensini score (r = 0.772). Conclusions: In this study, GGT had an independent correlation with angiographic severity of CAD and SYNTAX and Gensini scores. Although the existing evidence seems biologically plausible, more studies are needed to explore the potential role of this inexpensive marker for predicting disease burden in patients with CAD.
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VASOplegia is Predicted by Preoperative Platelet-LEucocyte conGlomerate Indices in Cardiac Surgery (VASOPLEGICS): A retrospective single-center study Highly accessed article p. 414
Rohan Magoon, Ramesh C Kashav, Iti Shri, Souvik Dey, Ashish Walian, Jasvinder K Kohli
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_54_21  
Background: Post-cardiotomy vasoplegia syndrome (VS) is often linked to an exaggerated inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). At the same time, the prognostic role of platelet-leucocyte indices (PLIs) and leucocyte indices (LIs), (platelet-lymphocyte ratio [PLR], systemic immune-inflammation index [SII = platelet × neutrophil/lymphocyte], aggregate index of systemic inflammation [AISI = platelet × monocyte × neutrophil/lymphocyte], and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio [NLR], systemic inflammation response index [SIRI = monocyte × neutrophil/lymphocyte), respectively] has been recently described in diverse inflammatory settings. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the VS predictive performance of PLIs and LIs in 1,045 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery at a tertiary care center. VS was defined by mean blood pressure <60 mmHg, low systemic vascular resistance (SVRI <1,500 dynes.s/cm 5/m2), a normal or high CI (>2.5 L/min/m2), and a normal or reduced central filling pressure despite high-dose vasopressors. Results: About 205 (19.61%) patients developed VS postoperatively. On univariate analysis, age, diabetes, dialysis-dependent renal failure, preoperative congestive heart failure (CHF), the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) II, ejection fraction, NLR, PLR, SII, SIRI, AISI, CPB, and aortic cross clamp (ACC) duration, packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion, and time-weighted average blood glucose predicted VS. Subsequent to the multivariate analysis, the predictive performance of EuroSCORE II (OR: 3.236; 95% CI: 2.345–4.468; P < 0.001), CHF (OR: 1.04; 95% CI: 1.02–1.06; P = 0.011), SII (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02–1.18; P = 0.001), AISI (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.05–1.17; P < 0.001), PRBC (OR: 4.747; 95% CI: 2.443–9.223; P < 0.001), ACC time (OR: 1.003; 95% CI: 1.001–1.005; P = 0.004), and CPB time (OR: 1.016; 95% CI: 1.004–1.028; P = 0.001) remained significant. VS predictive cut-offs of SII and AISI were 1,045 1045×109 /mm3 and 137532×109/mm3, respectively. AISI positively correlated with the postoperative vasoactive-inotropic score (R = 0.718), lactate (R = 0.655), mechanical ventilation duration (R = 0.837), and ICU stay (R = 0.757). Conclusions: Preoperative elevated SII and AISI emerged as independent predictors of post-cardiotomy VS.
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One-year experience after adoption of an on-table extubation protocol following pediatric cardiac surgery p. 422
Jothinath Kaushik, Raju Vijayakumar, Balakrishnan Soundaravalli, Menon Shoba, Osborn Jenit, Shajan Anisha
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_58_21  
Objective: To report our initial experience with on-table extubation following cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease, assessing its efficacy and safety, and the potential for fast-tracking these patients through the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We decided to implement a multidisciplinary protocol aiming toward on-table extubation following congenital cardiac surgery at our hospital. Between December 2018 and January 2020, 376 patients underwent congenital cardiac surgery. The management strategy involved choosing the patients preoperatively, a specific anesthetic technique, application of a standard extubation protocol, multidisciplinary team approach, and perioperative echocardiogram for assessment of surgical repair. Relevant data were collected and analyzed. Results: Out of the 376 patients who underwent congenital cardiac surgery during the study period, 44 patients were extubated on-table. Although a majority of these patients belonged to Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery-1 score (RACHS-1) 1 and 2 categories, 18% of the patients who were extubated on-table were of RACHS-3 category. This included a wide spectrum of anatomical substrates such as endocardial cushion defects, pulmonary venous anomalies, single ventricle physiology, valvular defects, and others such as cor triatriatum and sinus of Valsalva aneurysm. There was no in-hospital mortality related to on-table extubation. Only one patient was reintubated following on-table extubation resulting in a reintubation rate of 2.27% among those patients extubated on-table. The patients extubated on-table had a shorter ICU stay (25.89 ± 7.20 h) compared with those patients who underwent delayed extubation (59.30 ± 6.80 h). The duration of the hospital stay was also significantly reduced in these patients (91.09 ± 20.40 h) leading to an earlier discharge compared with those patients who underwent delayed extubation (134.40 ± 16.20 h). Conclusion: On-table extubation is an attractive alternative in limited-resource environments to enhance recovery in patients following congenital cardiac malformations. Owing to the lack of significant comorbidities such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in this patient population, corrective surgery for cardiac malformation usually optimizes the cardiorespiratory status. This results in more chances of successful extubation immediately following surgery. However, this requires proper perioperative planning, a careful discussion about the choice of patients, adoption of an extubation protocol, and most importantly, a multidisciplinary team approach. It is associated with low morbidity and mortality, with reduced length of stay in the ICU and hospital. This preliminary study demonstrated that on-table extubation is feasible following congenital cardiac surgery at our center and greatly reduces the intensive care requirements. This article focuses mainly on the decision-making process which determines the ideal candidates for on-table extubation and the anesthetic protocol implemented in a low-resource environment to enable the same.
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Can ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block replace thoracic epidural analgesia for postoperative analgesia in pediatric patients undergoing thoracotomy? A prospective randomized controlled trial p. 429
Swati Singh, Roshan Andaleeb, Dusu Lalin
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_269_20  
Background: Many analgesic modalities have been investigated in pediatrics for thoracotomy. We studied the analgesic efficacy of unilateral continuous ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane block (ESPB) compared to a thoracic epidural in pediatric patients undergoing thoracotomy. Materials and Methods: A prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study. Pediatric patients (2–7 years) scheduled for right or left thoracotomy under general anesthesia (GA) were enrolled in the study. We randomly assigned patients into two groups: The thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) group received GA with an epidural catheter. The ESPB group received GA with a unilateral ultrasound-guided erector spinae plane catheter. The primary outcome was postoperative cumulative opioid consumption for 24 h. Results: The total intraoperative fentanyl requirement was 35.4 ± 11.44 μg in the TEA group and 30.4 ± 9.08 μg in the ESPB group (t-value − 1.53013, P value: 0.134). The total postoperative fentanyl requirement was comparable in both the groups and clinically nonsignificant (44 ± 2.82 in the TEA group vs. 44.25 ± 13.72 in the ESPB group, t-value = −0.02412, P = 0.981). The median (IQR) Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) score at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h time points in the ESPB was equivalent to the TEA group. At 6 h time point, the TEA group had a significantly lower FLACC score than the ESPB group (1[1.75, 1] in the TEA group and 2 [2, 1] in the ESPB group, P value = .02, U = 117.5, z-score = −2.218). The complications were higher in the TEA group (urine retention 20% and hypotension 40%) than in the ESPB group (0 and 0%). Conclusions: This study shows that the ESPB provides similar postoperative analgesia to the TEA in pediatric patients undergoing thoracotomy. The ESPB is simpler, faster, and has a lower complication rate.
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Randomized control study of nebulized colistin as an adjunctive therapy in ventilator-associated pneumonia in pediatric postoperative cardiac surgical population p. 435
KS Bharathi, Ananda Bhat, Gegal Pruthi, Parimala P Simha
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_81_21  
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) with multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram negative organisms is a common problem in intensive care unit (ICU). Aerosolized antibiotics enhance the efficacy of systemic antibiotics when added as adjuvants. Aim: The primary objective of the study was to compare the clinical and bacteriological outcome of patients with VAP who were administered intravenous (IV) antibiotics alone with those patients who were treated with adjunctive nebulized colistin (NC) along with IV antibiotics. The secondary objective was to study the occurrence of any adverse events during colistin nebulization. Settings and Design: The study was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled study conducted at a tertiary-care teaching institution. Materials and Methods: Ninety-eight children from surgical ICU aged less than 12 years who were diagnosed with VAP due to gram negative bacteria following cardiac surgery were chosen and divided randomly into two groups. The experimental group (NC group) was treated with systemic antibiotics along with NC, whereas the control group (NS group) was administered systemic antibiotics with nebulized normal saline (NS). Clinical and bacteriological outcomes were noted. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 20.0 software. The patient characteristics were compared using independent Student's t test and Chi-square test. Results: There was a statistically significant reduction in the duration of mechanical ventilation, postoperative ICU and hospital stay (P < 0.05) in the NC group compared with the NS group. Conclusion: Aerosolized colistin may be considered as an adjunct to systemic IV antibiotics in pediatric patients with VAP due to gram negative bacteria susceptible to colistin.
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A prospective study of various anesthetic techniques in patients with acyanotic congenital heart diseases undergoing device closure p. 441
Nidhi Sultania, Tejaswini C Jambotkar, Shakuntala N Basantwani
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_59_21  
Background and Aims: Transcatheter device closure of congenital heart defects (CHD) has recently gained popularity. As limited literature exists regarding the ideal anesthetic technique for these procedures, we studied the perioperative anesthetic management and its effects on hemodynamics and complication rate in patients undergoing device closure. Methods: In this prospective observational study, all patients of 1 month to 50 years of age with acyanotic congenital heart diseases undergoing device closure were included. The anesthesia technique, i.e., general anesthesia with endotracheal tube (GETA)/supraglottic airway device (SGD) or conscious sedation with face mask (S-FM), and intravenous induction agent used was noted. Intraoperatively vital parameters, use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and perioperative complications if any, were noted. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using a statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) version 15. Results: GETA was used in the atrial septal defect (ASD) (62.8%), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (66.7%), ventricular septal defect (VSD) (65%) patients, SGD in ASD (6.3%), PDA (16.7%), and VSD (13.3%) patients. S-FM in ASD (31.3%), PDA (16.7%) and VSD (21.7%) patients. Etomidate was used as an induction agent in 30.61% of the patients and propofol in 69.39% of the patients. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the etomidate and propofol groups was statistically insignificant while decreased heart rate was noted in both groups. Complications like SGD dislodgement, supraventricular tachycardia, and device dislodgements were seen. Conclusion: In PDA device closure patients, GETA should be preferred. Patients for VSD device closure should receive general anesthesia as complications are common. In ASD device closure, patients without TEE use can be done under general anesthesia with SGD.
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A comparison of the success rate of radial artery cannulation between the ultrasound-guided and conventional palpation techniques in elderly patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery p. 447
Sarinya Chanthawong, Sirirat Tribuddharat, Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee, Thanaporn Suwongkrua, Suparit Silarat, Pathawat Plengpanich
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_70_21  
Background: Ultrasound-guided (USG) radial artery cannulation against the standard palpation technique increases the first attempt rate in both pediatric and adult patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the benefits of USG versus the palpation technique in improving the first attempt rate in elderly patients. Methods: The patients over 65 years of age were randomized to the USG or Palpation group. The radial artery identification in the USG group was performed with the aid of the Sonimage HS 1. In the Palpation group, the radial artery was identified by manual palpation. The operators were cardiothoracic anesthesiologists. Overall success was defined as cannulation completed within 10 min. Results: Eighty patients (40 in each group) were recruited. The respective first attempt and overall success rate for the USG group were similar to the Palpation group (P > 0.999 and P = 0.732). The time to the first attempt and overall success were also similar (P = 0.075 and P = 0.636). The number of attempts, number of catheters used, and failure rates were similar between the groups (P = 0.935, P = 0.938, and P = 0.723). The number of successful cannulations within 10 min was similar for both the groups as categorized by the radial artery diameter (P = 0.169). Conclusions: The USG did not increase the first attempt or overall success rate of radial artery cannulation in the elderly patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. The time to first attempt and overall success were similar between both the groups. The number of attempts and number of catheters used were similar between both groups.
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Citrate does not change viscoelastic haemostatic assays after cardiopulmonary bypass p. 453
Benjamin M Kristobak, Margaret L McCarthy, Ryan J Keneally, Keith D Amberman, Harvey J Ellis, Robert C Call
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_34_21  
Context: Viscoelastic hemostatic assays (VHA) are commonly used to identify specific cellular and humoral causes for bleeding in cardiac surgery patients. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) alterations to coagulation are observable on VHA. Citrated VHA can approximate fresh whole blood VHA when kaolin is used as the activator in healthy volunteers. Some have suggested that noncitrated blood is more optimal than citrated blood for point-of-care analysis in some populations. Aims: To determine if storage of blood samples in citrate after CPB alters kaolin activated VHA results. Settings and Design: This was a prospective observational cohort study at a single tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods and Material: Blood samples were subjected to VHA immediately after collection and compared to samples drawn at the same time and stored in citrate for 30, 90, and 150 min prior to kaolin activated VHA both before and after CPB. Statistical Analysis Used: VHA results were compared using paired T-tests and Bland–Altman analysis. Results: Maximum clot strength and time to clot initiation were not considerably different before or after CPB using paired T-tests or Bland–Altman Analysis. Conclusions: Citrated samples appear to be a clinically reliable substitute for fresh samples for maximum clot strength and time to VHA clot initiation after CPB. Concerns about the role of citrate in altering the validity of the VHA samples in the cardiac surgery population seem unfounded.
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A retrospective analysis of the incidence, outcome and factors associated with the occurrence of euglycemic ketoacidosis in diabetic patients on sodium glucose co-transporter – 2 inhibitors undergoing cardiac surgery p. 460
Karthik Babu Murugesan, Soundravalli Balakrishnan, Anandhi Arul, Srinivasan Ramalingam, Muralidharan Srinivasan
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_47_21  
Introduction: SGLT2i is a new class of drugs used for type 2 diabetes. SGLT2i are known to cause EuKA in the perioperative period. Euglycemic ketoacidosis (EuKA) can cause life-threatening metabolic acidosis in the perioperative setting. Though the event rate of SGLT2i associated diabetic ketoacidosis in nonoperative setting is low, incidence among peri-operative patients can be very high and remains unknown. Aim: The aim of this study was to find the incidence, analyze outcome, and establish correlation between risk factors and EuKA in cardiac surgical patients on SGLT2i. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study analyzing 24 cardiac surgical patients who were on SGLT2i for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data collection included age, sex, BMI, preoperative HbA1C, albumin, creatinine, type of SGLT2i and timing of stopping before surgery, insulin administration in the immediate pre-operative period; use of CPB, GI infusion and inotropes in the intraoperative period; blood ketone, duration of ventilation, hydration status and length of postoperative stay in postoperative period. Patients were diagnosed to have EuKA if any one of the serially measured postoperative ketone values was more than 0.6 mmol/L (ketone positive). The collected data were used to find an association between the risk factors and the occurrence of EuKA. Results: Of the 24 patients, 17 patients developed EuKA. (70.8.%). 10 of the 17 EuKA in our study required preoperative Insulin for diabetic control whereas none in the ketone negative patients required insulin. This was statistically significant (P = 0.019). Association of other factors to EuKA were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Though the event rate of SGLT2i associated Diabetic ketoacidosis in nonoperative setting is low, (17), the occurrence of EUKA in cardiac surgical patients on SGLT2i in our study was 70.8% (17 out of 24 patients). Patients who require insulin in addition to other oral hypoglycemic drugs for immediate preoperative glycemic control are at risk for the development of SGLT2 inhibitor-induced EuKA postoperatively. Missing the diagnosis of EuKA is fatal in these patients. We couldn't make a diagnosis in our first patient whom we lost. Since it was diagnosed in all our study patients by measuring serial ketone values, there was no mortality and insignificant morbidity. Cessation of SGLT2i before surgery, expectant watch for blood ketones, and treatment with GI infusion reduce morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgical patients.
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Effects of recombinant erythropoietin on hemoglobin levels and blood transfusion needs in patients with preoperative anemia undergoing cardiac surgery p. 466
Ziae Totonchi, Feridoun Noohi, Farzaneh Futuhi, Rasoul Azarfarin, Pooyan Radbin
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_42_21  
Introduction: Preoperative anemia is an important and relatively common problem in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and its treatment is crucial in improving postoperative outcomes. The use of recombinant erythropoietin is one of the suggested methods in this field. Therefore, in the present study, we sought to evaluate the effects of recombinant erythropoietin on hemoglobin (Hb) levels and blood transfusion needs in cardiac surgery in patients with preoperative anemia. Methods: This randomized nonblind clinical trial was performed on patients with mild-to-moderate anemia (Hb <12 g/dL in men and Hb <11 g/dL in women) undergoing cardiac surgery at a referral heart hospital (Tehran, Iran). The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 33 patients. In the intervention group, recombinant erythropoietin was administered at a dose of 500 IU/kg one to three days before surgery. Intra- and postoperative Hb levels and the need for blood transfusion were recorded during surgery and for 3 days afterward. Results: The use of packed red blood cells in the operating room was similar in the intervention and control groups (P = 0.156), but it was significantly lower in the intensive care unit in the intervention group (P = 0.030). The mean Hb, which was initially identical in the two groups (P > 0.05), showed a significantly lower decrease in the intervention group (P = 0.001). No significant differences were observed concerning other variables. Conclusions: The use of recombinant erythropoietin (500 IU/kg/day) one to three days before cardiac surgery in our anemic patients blunted a reduction in Hb levels and decreased blood transfusion needs.
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Measures to improve in-hospital outcomes of patients undergoing surgical repair for anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery p. 472
Kamayani Shukla, Jigar Surti, Gajendra Dubey, Amit Mishra, Trushar Gajjar, Imelda Jain, Himani Pandya
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_50_21  
Background: Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly leading to progressive left ventricular dysfunction and mitral regurgitation. We conducted this study to investigate various measures to optimize the outcomes of surgical correction for ALCAPA. Materials And Methods: This was a single-centre, retrospective, observational study including consecutive patients operated for ALCAPA. The main outcomes evaluated were in-hospital mortality, duration of mechanical ventilation, and duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. Independent sample t- test and Fisher's exact test were used for the analysis of continuous and categorical variables respectively. Results: 31 patients underwent surgical correction for ALCAPA during the study duration. The median age was 7.3 months with a range of 21 days to 25 months. All patients underwent coronary re-implantation with the coronary button transfer technique. There was no in-hospital mortality, the mean duration of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay was 117.6 hours and 10.7 days respectively. Age at admission, development of acute kidney injury after surgery, lactate levels at 12- and 24-hours post-surgery, and heart rate at ICU admission and 12-hours post-surgery were significantly associated with mechanical ventilation duration longer than 48 hours. Use of a combination of levosimendan and milrinone and elective intermittent nasal continuous positive airway pressure ventilation after extubation in all patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction were helpful in preventing low cardiac output and need for reintubation post-surgery respectively. Conclusion: Surgical correction for ALCAPA by coronary re-implantation has an excellent short-term outcome. Optimal postoperative management is of utmost importance for achieving the best results.
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Impact of a one-day three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography workshop on clinical practice at a single academic centre p. 479
Priya R Menon, Massimiliano Meineri, Jörg Ender, Anna Flo Forner
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_97_21  
Background: Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a powerful diagnostic tool which has become an integral part in the management of cardiac surgery patients. We developed a one-day 3D TEE workshop specifically designed to meet the needs of perioperative cardiac anaesthesiologists. We hypothesized that participation in the workshop would increase the uptake of 3D TEE in routine perioperative practice. Aims: To examine the impact of one-day 3D TEE workshop on 3D TEE image acquisition and incorporation into routine perioperative practice. Setting: Tertiary care hospital. Design: Prospective observational monocentric study. Subjects and Methods: A convenience sample of 20 cardiac anesthesiologists (with an option to attend the one- day workshop midway through the study) from a single center consented to have their intraoperative TEE images collected during the course of the study reviewed for research purposes. Images acquired 6 months before, immediately after, and 6 months following the workshop and images were examined by a blinded, expert echocardiographer. Results: Data collected for 16 participants (8 workshop attendees, 8 non-attendees) indicate that the TEE workshop increased the number of 3D TEE images, but not x images acquired immediately following the workshop (P=0.006). No difference was observed in number of 3D images at six months' post workshop. Workshop participants obtained more 3D and multi-plane images after the workshop and more 3D images at 6 months compared to those who did not attend the workshop. Conclusion: Our study suggests that a single day hands-on 3D TEE workshop may have had an impact on the implementation of intraoperative 3D TEE in experienced echocardiographers.
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Preoperative fibrinogen level and postcardiac surgery morbidity and mortality rates p. 485
Pierre Fricault, Juliette Piot, Cécile Estève, Veaceslav Savan, Alexandre Sebesteyn, Michel Durand, Olivier Chavanon, Pierre Albaladejo
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_103_21  
Background: High preoperative fibrinogen levels are associated with reduced bleeding rates after cardiac surgery. Fibrinogen is directly involved in inflammatory processes and is a cardiovascular risk factors. Whether high fibrinogen levels before cardiac surgery are a risk factor for mortality or morbidity remains unclear. Aims: This study aimed to examine the association between preoperative fibrinogen levels and mortality and morbidity rates after cardiac surgery. Settings and Design: This is a single-center retrospective study. Material and Methods: Patients (n = 1628) were divided into high (HFGr) and normal (NFGr) fibrinogen level groups, based on the cutoff value of 3.3 g/L, derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The primary outcome was the 30-day mortality rate. The rates of postoperative complications, including postoperative bleeding and transfusion rates, were examined. Statistical Analysis: Between-group comparisons were performed with the Mann–Whitney U test and Chi-squared test, as suitable. Model discriminative power was examined with the area under the ROC curve. Results: The HFGr and NFGr included 1103 and 525 patients, respectively. Mortality rate was higher in the HFGr than in the NFGr (2.7% vs. 1.1%, P = 0.04). The 12-h bleeding volume (280 mL [195–400] vs. 305 mL [225–435], P = 0.0003) and 24-h bleeding volume values (400 mL [300–550] vs. 450 mL [340–620], P < 0.0001) were lower in the HFGr than in the NFGr. However, the rate of red blood cell transfusion during hospitalization was higher in the HFGr than in the NFGr (21.7% vs. 5.9%, P = 0.0103). Major complications were more frequent in the HFGr than in the NFGr. Conclusion: High fibrinogen levels were associated with reduced postoperative bleeding volume and increased mortality and morbidity rates.
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Perioperative dexmedetomidine reduces delirium after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: A prospective, single-blind, observational study p. 490
Ajmer Singh, Vinit Garg, Yatin Mehta, Anil Bhan, Naresh Trehan
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_45_21  
Background: Delirium is a commonly seen complication of cardiac surgery. Dexmedetomidine, by its anti-inflammatory properties and other effects, can attenuate postoperative delirium. Aims: The aim of this work was to study the incidence of delirium after coronary artery bypass graft surgery, and to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine and propofol on the incidence of postoperative delirium in coronary artery bypass graft surgery patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective, observational study was conducted on 180 consecutive patients undergoing off-pump or on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The patients were administered either intravenous dexmedetomidine (n = 90) or propofol (n = 90) after hemostasis was achieved, till they were ready for weaning from the ventilator. The Confusion Assessment Method was used to assess the incidence of postoperative delirium. Measurements and Main Results: A total of 25 (13.8%) patients developed delirium after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Sedation with dexmedetomidine was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of postoperative delirium (8.9% v 18.9% propofol, P = 0.049). Subgroup analyses showed reduced incidence of postoperative delirium in off-pump patients compared to on-pump coronary artery bypass graft patients (3.3% vs. 20%, P = 0.009 dexmedetomidine group and 11.6% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.047 propofol group respectively). The mean age of the patients who had delirium was significantly more (64.9 ± 8.1 years vs. 52.5 ± 5.8 years, P = 0.046) compared to those who did not have delirium. Conclusion: Administration of dexmedetomidine-based sedation resulted in the reduced incidence of postoperative delirium compared to propofol-based sedation in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery.
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C–Reactive protein kinetics after cardiac surgery: A retrospective multicenter study p. 498
Cristina Santonocito, Filippo Sanfilippo, Isabelle De Locker, Federica Chiarenza, Cucuzza Giacomo, Hassane Njimi, Shane George, Marinella Astuto, Jean-Louis Vincent
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_141_21  
Background: Recognition of postoperative infection after cardiac surgery is challenging. Biomarkers may be very useful to recognize infection at early stage, but the literature is controversial. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study at two large University Hospitals, including adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery (excluding those with preoperative infections, cirrhotic or immunocompromised). We evaluated the kinetics of C-Reactive Protein (CRP) and White Cell Count (WCC) during the first postoperative week. Primary outcomes were CRP and WCC changes according to the development of postoperative infection. In order to evaluate the influence of cardiopulmonary bypass on biomarker kinetics, we also studied CRP and WCC changes in patients without postoperative infection and undergoing on- vs off-pump coronary-artery bypass grafting. Results: Among 429 included, 45 patients (10.5%) had evidence of postoperative infection. Patients with postoperative infection had higher CRP and WCC values than those without infection, with between-groups difference becoming significant from postoperative day 2 for CRP (120.6 ± 3.6 vs. 134.6 ± 7.9, P < 0.01), and from postoperative day 3 for WCC (10.5 ± 0.5 vs. 9.9 ± 0.2, P = 0.02). Over the postoperative period, CRP and WCC showed significant within-group changes regardless of development of postoperative infection (P < 0.001 for both). We found no differences in CRP and WCC kinetics between patients undergoing on- vs off-pump procedure. Conclusions: During the first week after cardiac surgery, CRP increases one day earlier than WCC in patients developing postoperative infections, with such difference becoming significant on the second postoperative day. In not infected patients, use of cardiopulmonary bypass does not influence CRP and WCC kinetics.
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Post-cardiopulmonary bypass longitudinal strain provides higher prognostic ability than baseline strain or change in strain p. 505
Brett J Wakefield, Amanda S Artis, Andrej Alfirevic, Shiva Sale, Andra E Duncan
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_295_20  
Context: Global longitudinal strain (GLS) measured by speckle-tracking echocardiography demonstrates excellent prognostic ability in predicting major adverse cardiac events after cardiac surgery. However, the optimal timing of intraoperative GLS measurement that provides the best prognostic value is unclear. Aim: Our goal was to evaluate whether GLS measured prior to cardiopulmonary bypass (pre-CPB GLS), following CPB (post-CPB GLS), or change in GLS provides the strongest association with postoperative complications. Setting and Design: Post hoc analysis of prospectively collected data from a clinical trial (NCT01187329). 72 patients with aortic stenosis undergoing elective AVR ± coronary artery bypass grafting between January 2011 and August 2013. Material and Methods: Myocardial deformation analysis from standardized transesophageal echocardiographic examinations were performed after anesthetic induction and chest closure. We evaluated the association between pre-CPB GLS, post-CPB GLS, and change in GLS (percent change from pre-CPB baseline) with postoperative atrial fibrillation and hospitalization >7 days. The association of post-CPB GLS with duration of mechanical ventilation, N-terminal pro-BNP (NT-proBNP) and troponin T were also assessed. Statistical Analysis: Multivariable logistic regression. Results: Risk-adjusted odds (OR[97.5%CI] of prolonged hospitalization increased an estimated 27% (1.27[1.01 to 1.59];Padj =0.035) per 1% decrease in absolute post-CPB GLS. Mean[98.3%CI] NT-proBNP increased 98.4[20 to 177]pg/mL; Padj =0.008), per 1% decrease in post-CPB GLS. Pre-CPB GLS or change in GLS were not associated with any outcomes. Conclusions: Post-CPB GLS provides the best prognostic value in predicting postoperative outcomes. Measuring post-CPB GLS may improve risk stratification and assist in future study design and patient outcome research.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Active paradoxical and pulmonary emboli in a first trimester pregnancy p. 514
Nicholas Suraci, Monica Shifman, Annadita Kumar, Michael Haske
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_296_20  
Capturing a paradoxical embolism in real-time has been a challenge in recent literature. We present the unique case of a 33-year-old, G3P2 female at 8 weeks gestation presenting with dyspnea. An active thrombus through an undiagnosed patent foramen ovale was found requiring emergent surgical intervention with a positive outcome. The presence of a deep vein thrombosis, inferior vena caval thrombus, patent foramen ovale, and pulmonary artery thrombi was contemporarily documented. To our knowledge, there is minimal literature with this presentation.
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Combination of low-dose spinal anesthesia and epidural anesthesia as anesthetic management in patient with uncorrected Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV) underwent cesarean section p. 518
Ruddi Hartono, Dendy D Ramadhani, Isngadi Isngadi
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_315_20  
Pregnant patients with uncorrected Double Outlet Right Ventricle (DORV) undergoing cesarean section are challenging for anesthesiologists. We present a case of a 24-year-old woman with a gestational age of 30–32 weeks with DORV, ventricular septal defect, pulmonary hypertension, and stage C functional class III heart failure who was successfully managed using a combination of low-dose spinal anesthesia bupivacaine 0.5% 7.5 mg with adjuvant fentanyl 50 mcg and epidural ropivacaine 0.2%, and fentanyl 50 mcg TV 10 cc given 30 minutes after the birth of her baby. Hemodynamics was stable after low-dose spinal anesthesia and until the end of the operation.
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Patent vertical vein device closure: Peri procedural anesthetic management p. 522
Pankaj P Bhosale, Manish Chokhandre, Salvi Prassana
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_36_21  
We present the peri-procedural anesthetic management in a case of transcatheter closure of an unligated patent vertical vein (VV) in a 2-year-old male child operated case of obstructed supra cardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) who presented with significant left to right shunt causing symptoms of right heart failure. The procedure was carried out successfully under deep sedation and monitored anesthesia care (MAC) and had some specific clinical implications from the anesthetic management perspective which are highlighted and discussed in this report.
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Use of intraoperative coronary angiography to guide surgical intervention in coronary artery bypass graft surgery p. 525
Jaclyn H Mueller, Kimberly Hollander
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_167_21  
Following coronary artery bypass graft surgery, graft patency is a major factor contributing to patient morbidity and mortality. There are several modalities available for assessing graft patency intra-op used by both the anesthesiologist and surgeon. However, these modalities have their own advantages and disadvantages which will be summarized in this case report. As illustrated by this case, angiography continues to be the gold standard for coronary anatomy assessment and can be performed easily using a portable digital fluoroscopic system.
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CASE SERIES Top

The use of ketamine as an induction agent for anesthesia in pulmonary thromboendarterectomy surgery: A case series p. 528
Kiran Salaunkey, David Jenkins, Andrew Roscoe
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_24_21  
Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) surgery is the treatment of choice for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The induction of anesthesia in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension (PHT) can be challenging, with a risk of cardiovascular collapse. The administration of ketamine in patients with PHT is controversial, with some recommendations contraindicating its use. However, ketamine has been used safely in children with severe PHT. We present a retrospective case series of adult patients with severe PHT presenting for PTE surgery, using intravenous ketamine as a co-induction anesthetic agent.
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Management of bronchomalacia in infants post-cardiac surgery using synchronized nasal DuoPAP: A novel technology p. 531
Alok Kumar, M Praveen, Nikhil Tiwari, H Ravi Ramamoorthy, Ankur Joshi, Badal Parikh
DOI:10.4103/aca.aca_112_21  
Background: Tracheo-bronchomalacia (TBM) is the weakness in the structural integrity of the cartilaginous ring and arch. It may occur in isolation with prematurity or secondarily in association with various congenital anomalies. Bronchomalacia is more commonly associated with congenital heart diseases. The conventional treatment options include positive pressure ventilation with or without tracheostomy, surgical correction of external compression and airway stenting. Aim: To use “synchronized” nasal Dual positive airway pressure (DuoPAP), a non-invasive mode of ventilation as an alternative treatment option for bronchomalacia to avoid complications associated with conventional treatment modalities. Study Design: Prospective observational study conducted in Army Hospital Research and Referral from Jul 2019 to Dec 2020. Material and Methods: We diagnosed seven cases of TBM post-cardiac surgery at our institute, incidence of 4.2%. Four infants were diagnosed with left sided bronchomalacia, 2 were diagnosed with right sided bronchomalacia and one with tracheomalacia. Those infants were managed by “synchronized” nasal DuoPAP, a first in ventilation technology by Fabian Therapy Evolution ventilator (Acutronic, Switzerland). Results: All seven infants showed significant improvement with synchronized nasal DuoPAP both clinically as well as radiologically. None of the infant required tracheostomy and discharged to home successfully. Conclusion: The synchronized nasal DuoPAP is a low cost and effective treatment option for infants with TBM. It could be attributed to synchronization of the breaths leading to better tolerance and compliance in paediatric age group.
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