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   2015| October-December  | Volume 18 | Issue 4  
    Online since October 1, 2015

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Impact comparison of ketamine and sodium thiopental on anesthesia during electroconvulsive therapy in major depression patients with drug-resistant; a double-blind randomized clinical trial
B Salehi, A Mohammadbeigi, AR Kamali, MR Taheri-Nejad, I Moshiri
October-December 2015, 18(4):486-490
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166444  PMID:26440233
Background: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is one of the available and the most effective therapies for the treatment of resistant depression. Considering the crucial role of seizure duration on therapeutic response in patients treated with ECT, this study aimed to compare the effect of ketamine and sodium thiopental anesthesia during ECT for treatment of patients with drug-resistant major depression (DRMD). Materials and Methods: In a double-blind randomized clinical trial, 160 patients with DRMD were selected consequently and were assigned randomly into two groups including ketamine 0.8 mg/kg and sodium thiopental 1.5 mg/kg. The seizure duration, recovery time, and the side effects of anesthesia were evaluated after 1-h after anesthesia. Data of recovery time and complication collected in 2 nd , 4 th , 6 th , and 8 th ECT. Depression was assessed by Hamilton depression scale. Results: The results indicated that ketamine and sodium thiopental had a significant effect on the reduction of depression scores in patients with DRMD (P < 0.05). Complications such as a headache, nausea, pain at the injection site, short-term delirium, and long-term delirium were higher in ketamine group (P > 0.05). But ketamine was more effective in improvement of depression score and increasing systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). The mean of seizure duration showed a decreasing trend and was significant between two study groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Anesthesia induced by ketamine during ECT therapy increased blood pressure and seizure duration. Therefore, due to lower medical complication and attack rate of seizure, ketamine is an appropriate option for anesthesia with ECT in patients with DRMD.
  9 2,946 252
REVIEW ARTICLES
Intraoperative aortic dissection
Ajmer Singh, Yatin Mehta
October-December 2015, 18(4):537-542
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166463  PMID:26440240
Intraoperative aortic dissection is a rare but fatal complication of open heart surgery. By recognizing the population at risk and by using a gentle operative technique in such patients, the surgeon can usually avoid iatrogenic injury to the aorta. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography and epiaortic scanning are invaluable for prompt diagnosis and determination of the extent of the injury. Prevention lies in the strict control of blood pressure during cannulation/decannulation, construction of proximal anastomosis, or in avoiding manipulation of the aorta in high-risk patients. Immediate repair using interposition graft or Dacron patch graft is warranted to reduce the high mortality associated with this complication.
  7 3,737 277
Mechanisms of oxidative stress and myocardial protection during open-heart surgery
Nikolaos G Baikoussis, Nikolaos A Papakonstantinou, Chrysoula Verra, Georgios Kakouris, Maria Chounti, Panagiotis Hountis, Panagiotis Dedeilias, Michalis Argiriou
October-December 2015, 18(4):555-564
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166465  PMID:26440242
Cold heart protection via cardioplegia administration, limits the amount of oxygen demand. Systemic normothermia with warm cardioplegia was introduced due to the abundance of detrimental effects of hypothermia. A temperature of 32-33°C in combination with tepid blood cardioplegia of the same temperature appears to be protective enough for both; heart and brain. Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) concentration is in part responsible for myocardial injury after the cardioplegic cardiac arrest. Restoration of NO balance with exogenous NO supplementation has been shown useful to prevent inflammation and apoptosis. In this article, we discuss the "deleterious" effects of the oxidative stress of the extracorporeal circulation and the up-to-date theories of "ideal'' myocardial protection.
  6 4,653 592
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Anti-inflammatory effects of propofol during cardiopulmonary bypass: A pilot study
A Samir, N Gandreti, M Madhere, A Khan, M Brown, V Loomba
October-December 2015, 18(4):495-501
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166451  PMID:26440235
Introduction: Propofol has been suggested as a useful adjunct to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) because of its potential protective effect on the heart mediated by a decrease in ischemia-reperfusion injury and inflammation at clinically relevant concentrations. In view of these potentially protective properties, which modulate many of the deleterious mechanism of inflammation attributable to reperfusion injury and CPB, we sought to determine whether starting a low dose of propofol infusion at the beginning of CPB would decrease inflammation as measured by pro-inflammatory markers. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 24 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). The study group received propofol at rate of 120 mcg/kg/min immediately after starting CPB and was maintained throughout the surgery and for the following 6 hours in the intensive care unit (ICU). The control group received propofol dose of 30-50 mcg/kg/min which was started at the time of chest closure with wires and continued for the next 6 hours in the ICU. Interleukins (IL) -6, -8 and -10 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) were assayed. Result: The most significant difference was in the level of IL-6 which had a P value of less than 0.06. Starting a low dose propofol early during the CPB was not associated with significant hemodynamic instability in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: Our study shows that propofol may be suitable as an anti-inflammatory adjunct for patients undergoing CABG.
  5 2,190 215
Comparison of the effects of inhalational anesthesia with desflurane and total intravenous anesthesia on cardiac biomarkers after aortic valve replacement
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Sameer Taneja, Usha Kiran, P Rajashekhar
October-December 2015, 18(4):502-509
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166455  PMID:26440236
Objective (s): The aim of this study was to compare the effects of using inhalational anesthesia with desflurane with that of a total intravenous (iv) anesthetic technique using midazolam-fentanyl-propofol on the release of cardiac biomarkers after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for aortic stenosis (AS). The specific objectives included (a) determination of the levels of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) as markers of myocardial injury, (b) effect on mortality, morbidity, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital stay, incidence of arrhythmias, pacing, cardioversion, urine output, and serum creatinine. Methodology and Design: Prospective randomized clinical study. Setting: Operation room of a cardiac surgery center of a tertiary teaching hospital. Participants: Seventy-six patients in New York Heart Association classification II to III presenting electively for AVR for severe symptomatic AS. Interventions: Patients included in the study were randomized into two groups and subjected to either a desflurane-fentanyl based technique or total IV anesthesia (TIVA). Blood samples were drawn at preordained intervals to determine the levels of IMA, cTnI, and serum creatinine. Measurements and Main Results: The IMA and cTnI levels were not found to be significantly different between both the study groups. Patients in the desflurane group were found to had significantly lower ICU and hospital stays and duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation as compared to those in the TIVA group. There was no difference found in mean heart rate, urine output, serum creatinine, incidence of arrhythmias, need for cardioversion, and 30-day mortality between both groups. The patients in the TIVA group had higher mean arterial pressures on weaning off cardiopulmonary bypass as well as postoperatively in the ICU and recorded lower inotrope usage. Conclusion: The result of our study remains ambiguous regarding the overall protective effect of desflurane in patients undergoing AVR although some benefit in terms of shorter duration of postoperative mechanical ventilation, ICU and hospital stays, as well as cTnI, were seen. However, no difference in overall outcome could be clearly established between patients who received desflurane and those that were managed solely with IV anesthetic technique using propofol.
  5 2,429 321
Does intravenous sildenafil clinically ameliorate pulmonary hypertension during perioperative management of congenital heart diseases in children? - A prospective randomized study
Vipul Krishen Sharma, Saajan Joshi, Ankur Joshi, Gaurav Kumar, Harmeet Arora, Anurag Garg
October-December 2015, 18(4):510-516
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166457  PMID:26440237
Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PHT), if present, can be a significant cause of increased morbidity and mortality in children undergoing surgery for congenital heart diseases (CHD). Various techniques and drugs have been used perioperatively to alleviate the effects of PHT. Intravenous (IV) sildenafil is one of them and not many studies validate its clinical use. Aims and Objectives: To compare perioperative PaO 2 - FiO 2 ratio peak filling rate (PFR), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) - systolic aortic pressure (AoP) ratio, extubation time, and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay between two groups of children when one of them is administered IV sildenafil perioperatively during surgery for CHDs. Materials and Methods: Patients with ventricular septal defects and proven PHT, <14 years of age, all American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III, undergoing cardiac surgery, were enrolled into two groups - Group S (IV sildenafil) and Group C (control) - over a period of 14 months, starting from October 2013. Independent t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare the various parameters between two groups. Results: PFR was higher throughout, perioperatively, in Group S. PAP/AoP was 0.3 and 0.4 in Group S and Group C, respectively. In Group S, mean group extubation time was 7 ± 7.34 h, whereas in Group C it was 22.1 ± 10.6. Postoperative ICU stay in Group S and Group C were 42.3 ± 8.8 h and 64.4 ± 15.9 h, respectively. Conclusion: IV sildenafil, when used perioperatively, in children with CHD having PHT undergoing corrective surgery, improves not only PaO 2 - FiO 2 ratio and PAP - AoP ratio but also reduces extubation time and postoperative ICU stay.
  5 2,905 282
REVIEW ARTICLES
Pharmacologic agents for acute hemodynamic instability: Recent advances in the management of perioperative shock- A systematic review
Steven T Morozowich, Harish Ramakrishna
October-December 2015, 18(4):543-554
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166464  PMID:26440241
Despite the growing body of evidence evaluating the efficacy of vasoactive agents in the management of hemodynamic instability and circulatory shock, it appears no agent is superior. This is becoming increasingly accepted as current guidelines are moving away from detailed algorithms for the management of shock, and instead succinctly state that vasoactive agents should be individualized and guided by invasive hemodynamic monitoring. This extends to the perioperative period, where vasoactive agent selection and use may still be left to the discretion of the treating physician with a goal-directed approach, consisting of close hemodynamic monitoring and administration of the lowest effective dose to achieve the hemodynamic goals. Successful therapy depends on the ability to rapidly diagnose the etiology of circulatory shock and thoroughly understand its pathophysiology as well as the pharmacology of vasoactive agents. This review focuses on the physiology and resuscitation goals in perioperative shock, as well as the pharmacology and recent advances in vasoactive agent use in its management.
  3 6,262 742
HEART TO HEART BLOG INTERESTING IMAGES
Transvalvular mitral regurgitation following mitral valve replacement a diagnostic dilemma
US Dinesh Kumar, Umesh Nareppa, Shyam Prasad Shetty, Murugesh Wali
October-December 2015, 18(4):584-586
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166476  PMID:26440249
After mitral valve replacement with a prosthetic valve, the valve should be competent and there should not be any residual prosthetic valve regurgitation. Transvalvular residual prosthetic valve regurgitation are difficult to diagnose and quantify. we are reporting interesting TEE images as a diagnostic dilemma in a case of transvalvular mitral regurgitation following mitral valve replacement secondary to entrapment of sub-valvular apparatus in a Chitra mechanical heart valve.
  2 2,351 123
CASE REPORTS
Role of transesophageal echocardiography: A rare case of acute left atrial free wall dissection
G Anil Kumar, NM Nandakumar, BV Sudhir, Ashwini Kumar Pasarad
October-December 2015, 18(4):593-595
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166482  PMID:26440252
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) has been used routinely in the diagnosis and follow-up of cardiac cases. Left atrial dissection (LAd), an exceedingly rare complication of cardiac surgery, is most commonly associated with mitral valve surgery. A case of LAd is presented, and the pathology was accurately defined and immediately diagnosed using intraoperative TEE. This case highlights the importance of prompt diagnosis of LAd using intraoperative TEE, and a second cardiac surgery was avoided.
  1 1,451 109
Airway compromise during central venous cannulation in an undiagnosed tubercular retropharyngeal abscess: A case report
Sujay Samanta, Sukhen Samanta, Richa Aggarwal, Kapil Dev Soni
October-December 2015, 18(4):596-598
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166483  PMID:26440253
Central venous cannulation is often associated with complications during insertion even by expert's hand and with the aid of ultrasound. We encountered a patient for central line insertion through the right internal jugular vein having a retropharyngeal abscess of tubercular origin. We accidentally punctured the abscess cavity leading to increased respiratory distress and subsequent need of intubation to the patient. This kind of complication during central line insertion has never been reported before. We intend to report such a case to alert everyone about the grave complications it can lead to and the methods to minimize them in the times ahead.
  1 1,232 96
Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum and fibrosing mediastinal lymphadenopathy causing superior vena cava obstruction
Nikolaos G Baikoussis, Orestis Argiriou, Theodoros Kratimenos, Panagiotis Dedeilias, Michalis Argiriou
October-December 2015, 18(4):609-611
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166487  PMID:26440257
Lipomatous hypertrophy of the interatrial septum (LHIS) is an uncommon cause of superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS). Fibrosing mediastinal lymphadenopathy is another cause of SVCS. We present a 65-year-old female patient with a history of tuberculosis (TB) and the coexistence of LHIS and fibrosing mediastinitis due to TB of the lung. Fibrosing or sclerosing mediastinitis is a rare entity with few cases published in the western literature. She presented with mild symptomatology of SVCS and she underwent on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance imaging, and venography. Due to the development of an abundant collateral venous system seen on venography and her negation for any treatment, she did not undergo yet on any intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the international bibliography in which LHIS and sclerosing lymphadenopathy are simultaneously diagnosed in the same patient.
  1 1,388 87
HEART TO HEART BLOG INTERESTING IMAGES
Echocardiographic detection of free-floating thrombus in left ventricle during coronary artery bypass grafting
Jagadeesh N Vaggar, Shrinivas Gadhinglajkar, Vivek Pillai, Rupa Sreedhar, Roshith Cahndran, Suddhadeb Roy
October-December 2015, 18(4):579-583
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166474  PMID:26440248
We report an incident of detection of a free-floating thrombus in the left ventricle (LV) using intraoperative two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) during proximal coronary artery bypass graft anastomosis. A 58-year-old man presented to us with a 6-month history of chest pain without any history suggestive of myocardial infarction or transient ischemic attacks. His preoperative echocardiography revealed the systolic dysfunction of LV, mild hypokinesia of basal and mid-anterior wall, and the absence of an aneurysm. He was scheduled for on-pump coronary artery bypass surgery. On intraoperative TEE before establishing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), a small immobile mass was found attached to LV apical area. After completion of distal coronary artery grafting, when the aortic cross-clamp was removed, the heart was filled partially and beating spontaneously. TEE examination using 2D mode revealed a free-floating mass in the LV, which was suspected to be a thrombus. Additional navigation using biplane and 3D modes confirmed the presence of the thrombus and distinguished it from papillary muscles and artifact. The surgeon opened the left atrium after re-establishing electromechanical quiescence and removed a thrombus measuring 1.5 cm Χ 1 cm from the LV. The LV mass in the apical region was no longer seen after discontinuation of CPB. Accurate TEE-detection and timely removal of the thrombus averted disastrous embolic complications. Intraoperative 2D and recent biplane and 3D echocardiography modes are useful monitoring tools during the conduct of CPB.
  1 1,717 127
Which valve is which?
Pravin Saxena, Anil Bhan, Rajesh Kumar Sharma, Yatin Mehta
October-December 2015, 18(4):587-588
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166477  PMID:26440250
A 25-year-old man presented with a history of breathlessness for the past 2 years. He had a history of operation for Tetralogy of Fallot at the age of 5 years and history suggestive of Rheumatic fever at the age of 7 years. On echocardiographic examination, all his heart valves were severely regurgitating. Morphologically, all the valves were irreparable. The ejection fraction was 35%. He underwent quadruple valve replacement. The aortic and mitral valves were replaced by metallic valve and the tricuspid and pulmonary by tissue valve.
  1 5,407 218
Case report of fatal complication of superior vena cava tear from balloon dilatation of iatrogenic superior vena cava narrowing
Nivash Chandrasekaran, Ashwini Thimmarayappa, AM Jagadeesh
October-December 2015, 18(4):589-592
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166478  PMID:26440251
The treatment options for superior vena cava (SVC) obstruction depends on the cause and severity of SVC narrowing. It ranges from conservative medical management to more elaborate endovascular and surgical repair of obstruction. There has always been a concern regarding the possibility of rupture of SVC during balloon dilatation, if the obstruction is secondary to the surgical cause. Very few cases are reported in the literature. We report a case of fatal complication of SVC tear in a 2-month-old child who had iatrogenic SVC narrowing.
  1 2,691 133
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Role of phenoxybenzamine in perioperative clinical practice
Das Sambhunath, Kumar Pankaj, Kiran Usha
October-December 2015, 18(4):577-578
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166473  PMID:26440247
  1 1,959 173
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Where does the pulmonary artery catheter float: Transesophageal echocardiography evaluation
Deepak K Tempe, Upma Bhatia Batra, Vishnu Datt, Akhlesh Singh Tomar, Sanjula Virmani
October-December 2015, 18(4):491-494
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166450  PMID:26440234
Background: Pulmonary artery (PA) catheter provides a variety of cardiac and hemodynamic parameters. In majority of the patients, the catheter tends to float in the right pulmonary artery (RPA) than the left pulmonary artery (LPA). We evaluated the location of PA catheter with the help of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to know the incidence of its localization. Three views were utilized for this purpose; midesophageal ascending aorta (AA) short-axis view, modified mid esophageal aortic valve long-axis view, and modified bicaval view. Methods: We enrolled 135 patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery where both the PA catheter and TEE were to be used; for this prospective observational study. PA catheter was visualized by TEE in the above mentioned views and the degree of clarity of visualization by three views was also noted. Position of the PA catheter was further confirmed by a postoperative chest radiograph. Results: One patient was excluded from the data analysis. PA catheter was visualized in RPA in 129 patients (96%) and in LPA in 4 patients (3%). In 1 patient, the catheter was visualized in main PA in the chest radiograph. The midesophageal AA short-axis, modified aortic valve long-axis, and modified bicaval view provided good visualization in 51.45%, 57.4%, and 62.3% patients respectively. Taken together, PA catheter visualization was good in 128 (95.5%) patients. Conclusion: We conclude that the PA catheter has a high probability of entering the RPA as compared to LPA (96% vs. 3%) and TEE provides good visualization of the catheter in RPA.
  1 1,552 157
An analysis of the factors influencing pulmonary artery catheter placement in anesthetized patients
Saya Hakata, Chiho Ota, Yoshiko Kato, Yuji Fujino, Takahiko Kamibayashi, Yukio Hayashi
October-December 2015, 18(4):474-478
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166442  PMID:26440231
Background: Pulmonary artery catheters are usually placed by resident anesthesiologists with pressure wave monitoring from educational point of view. In some cases, the placement needs longer time or is difficult only by observing the pressure waves. Aims: We sought to examine the time required for the catheter placement in adult patients and determine factors influencing the placement. Settings and Designs: Prospective, observational, cohort study. Methods: We examined the time required for the catheter placement. If the catheter is placed in longer than 5 min, this could be a difficult placement. We examined the effect of the patient's age, body mass index, cardiothoracic ratio (CTR) and tricuspid regurgitation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and training duration of a resident on the difficult catheter placement. Next, we excluded the difficult cases from the analysis and examined the effect of these factors on the placement time. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by logistic regression analysis to assess factors for the difficult catheter placement and multiple linear regression analysis to evaluate the factors to increase the placement time after univariate analyses. Results: The difficult placement occurred in 6 patients (5.7%). The analysis showed that LVEF was a significant factor to hinder the catheter placement (P = 0.02) while CTR was a significant factor to increase the placement time (P = 0.002). Conclusion: LVEF and CTRs are significant factors to be associated with the difficult catheter placement and to increase the placement time, respectively.
  1 1,791 173
REVIEW ARTICLES
Percutaneous and minimally invasive approaches to mitral valve repair for severe mitral regurgitation-new devices and emerging outcomes
Fadi E Shamoun, Ryan C Craner, Rita Von Seggern, Gerges Makar, Harish Ramakrishna
October-December 2015, 18(4):528-536
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166462  PMID:26440239
Mitral valve disease is common in the United States and around the world, and if left untreated, increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Mitral valve repair is technically more demanding than mitral valve replacement. Mitral valve repair should be considered the first line of treatment for mitral regurgitation in younger patients, mitral valve prolapse, annular dilatation, and with structural damage to the valve. Several minimally invasive percutaneous treatment options for mitral valve repair are available that are not restricted to conventional surgical approaches, and may be better received by patients. A useful classification system of these approaches proposed by Chiam and Ruiz is based on anatomic targets and device action upon the leaflets, annulus, chordae, and left ventricle. Future directions of minimally invasive techniques will include improving the safety profile through patient selection and risk stratification, improvement of current imaging and techniques, and multidisciplinary education.
  1 3,010 182
BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Large left ventricular pseudoaneurysm and spontaneous recanalized coronaries
Ramesh Varadharajan, Satyen Parida, Ashok Badhe
October-December 2015, 18(4):571-572
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166467  PMID:26440244
35 year old with ruptured lateral wall of Left ventricle (LV) resulting in large pseudo aneurysm contained within the pericardium [Figure 1]. There was free flow of blood between the LV and pseudoaneurysm .He underwent endoventricular patch plasty of the defect after opening the wall of aneurysm [Figure 2].
  - 1,161 96
CASE REPORTS
Unusual cause of hypoxemia after automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillatorleads extraction
Dinesh Raju, Chandrika Roysam, Rajendra Singh, Stephen C Clark, Christopher Plummer
October-December 2015, 18(4):599-602
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166484  PMID:26440254
The indication of pacemaker/AICD removal are numerous. Serious complication can occur during their removal, severe tricuspid regurgitation is one of the complication. The occurrence of PFO is not uncommon among adult population. Shunting across PFO in most circumstance is negligible, but in some necessitates closure due to hypoxemia. We report a case of 62 year old man, while undergoing AICD removal, had an emergency sternotomy for cardiac tamponade. Postoperatively, he experienced profound hypoxemia refractory to oxygen therapy. Transthoracic Echocardiogram was performed to rule out intracardiac shunts at an early stage, but it was difficult to obtain an good imaging windows poststernotomy. A small pulmonary emboli was noted on CTPA, but was not sufficient to account for the level of hypoxemia and did not resolve with anticoagulation. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed flail septal tricuspid valve with severe TR and bidirectional shunt through large PFO. Patient was posted for surgery, tricuspid valve was replaced and PFO surgically closed. Subsequently, patient recovered well ad was discharged to home. Cause of hypoxemia might be due to respiratory or cardiac dysfunction. But for hypoxemia refractory to oxygen therapy, transoesophageal echocardiogram should be always considered and performed early as an diagnostic tool in post cardiac surgical patients.
  - 1,393 76
Challenges of valve surgeries in post-renal transplant patients
Tanveer Ahmad, Kolkebaile Sadanand Kishore, Nandakumar Neralakere Maheshwarappa, Ashwini Kumar Pasarad
October-December 2015, 18(4):603-605
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166485  PMID:26440255
Renal transplantation remains a mainstay of therapy for the end-stage renal disease. Cardiac disease has a high prevalence in this patient population. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death among kidney transplantation patients. The cardiac disease accounts for 43% of all-cause mortality among dialysis patients and for ≈38% of all-cause mortality after transplantation. In this article, we review the factors and outcomes associated with valve surgeries in renal transplant recipients and evaluate the strategy for open heart surgery after renal transplantation performed.
  - 2,326 138
Selective use of superficial temporal artery cannulation in infants undergoing cardiac surgery
Pradeep Bhaskar, Jiju John, Reyaz Ahmad Lone, Ahmed Sallehuddin
October-December 2015, 18(4):606-608
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166486  PMID:26440256
Arterial cannulation is routinely performed in children undergoing cardiac surgery to aid the intraoperative and intensive care management. Most commonly cannulated peripheral site in children is radial artery, and alternatives include posterior tibial, dorsalis pedis, and rarely superficial temporal artery (STA). Two specific situations in cardiac surgery where STA cannulation and monitoring was useful during the surgical procedure are reported. To our knowledge, such selective use of STA pressure monitoring has not been reported in the literature previously. Our experience suggests that STA monitoring can be useful and reliable during repair of coarctation of aorta or administration of anterograde cerebral perfusion in patients having associated aberrant origin of the right subclavian artery.
  - 1,564 105
EDITORIALS
From Editor's Desk: Ardous journey from IACTA education and research cell to Indian College of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor
October-December 2015, 18(4):461-463
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166438  PMID:26440228
  - 1,423 180
Editorial: Optimizing current blood utilization practices in perioperative patients using the lean team approach
Eduardo S Rodrigues, Harish Ramakrishna
October-December 2015, 18(4):464-466
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166440  PMID:26440229
  - 1,690 202
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Capnothorax induced subclavian artery compression
Leah Raju George, Ramamani Mariappan
October-December 2015, 18(4):573-574
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166468  PMID:26440245
  - 985 76
Noninvasive removal of a knotted pulmonary artery catheter
Kalpana Shah, Arun Mehra, Girish Warawadekar
October-December 2015, 18(4):575-576
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166472  PMID:26440246
  - 1,143 84
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
The increasing importance of percutaneous mechanical circulatory assist device therapy in heart failure management
Ricardo A Weis, Patrick A Devaleria, Sarang Koushik, Harish Ramakrishna
October-December 2015, 18(4):467-473
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166441  PMID:26440230
Introduction: Advances in medical and surgical care have made it possible for an increasing number of patients with Congenital Heart disease (CHD) to live into adulthood. Transposition of the great vessels (TGV) is the most common cyanotic congenital cardiac disease where the right ventricle serves as systemic ventricle. It is not uncommon for these patients to have systemic ventricular failure requiring transplantation. Study Design: Hemodynamic decompensation in these patients can be swift and difficult to manage. Increasingly percutaneous LVAD's such as the Impella (Abiomed, Mass, USA) are gaining popularity in these situations owing to their relative ease of placement, both in and outside of the operating room. Conclusion: In this paper we demonstrate that Impella (IMP) CP placement through the axillary artery approach shows to be suitable option for short term cardiac support and improvement of end organ perfusion in anticipation of cardiac transplantation.
  - 2,916 194
Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction: Comparison between cardiopulmonary exercise test and methacholine challenging test
Mostafa Ghanei, Rasoul Aliannejad, Mahdi Mazloumi, Amin Saburi
October-December 2015, 18(4):479-485
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166443  PMID:26440232
Introduction: Exertional-induced bronchoconstriction is a condition in which the physical activity causes constriction of airways in patients with airway hyper- responsiveness. In this study, we tried to study and evaluate any relationship between the findings of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and the response to methacholine challenge test (MCT) in patients with dyspnea after activity. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with complaints of dyspnea following activity referred to "Lung Clinic" of Baqiyatallah Hospital but not suffering from asthma were entered into the study. The subjects were excluded from the study if: Suffering from any other pulmonary diseases, smoking more than 1 cigarette a week in the last year, having a history of smoking more than 10 packets of cigarettes/year, having respiratory infection in the past 4 weeks, having abnormal chest X-ray or electrocardiogram, and cannot discontinue the use of medicines interfering with bronchial provocation. Baseline spirometry was performed for all the patients, and the values of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV/FVC were recorded. The MCT and then the CPET were performed on all patients. Results: The mean VO 2 (volume oxygen) in patients with positive methacholine test (20.45 mL/kg/min) was significantly lower than patients with negative MCT (28.69 mL/kg/min) (P = 0.000). Respiratory rates per minute (RR) and minute ventilation in the group with positive MCT (38.85 and 1.636 L) were significantly lower than the group with negative methacholine test (46.78 and 2.114 L) (P < 0.05). Also, the O 2 pulse rate in the group with negative methacholine test (116.27 mL/beat) was significantly higher than the group with positive methacholine test (84.26 mL/beat) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Pulmonary response to exercise in patients with positive methacholine test is insufficient. The dead space ventilation in these patients has increased. Also, dynamic hyperinflation in patients with positive methacholine test causes the reduced stroke volume and O 2 pulse in these patients.
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REVIEW ARTICLES
Perioperative venous thromboembolic disease and the emerging role of the novel oral anticoagulants: An analysis of the implications for perioperative management
Martina Mookadam, Fadi E Shamoun, Harish Ramakrishna, Hiba Obeid, Renee L Rife, Farouk Mookadam
October-December 2015, 18(4):517-527
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166461  PMID:26440238
Venous thromboembolism includes 2 inter-related conditions: Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin followed by oral anticoagulation with vitamin K agonists is the first line and current accepted standard therapy with good efficacy. However, this therapeutic strategy has many limitations including the significant risk of bleeding and drug, food and disease interactions that require frequent monitoring. Dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban are the novel oral anticoagulants that are available for use in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and for the treatment and prevention of venous thromboembolism (HYPERLINK\l "1). Recent prospective randomized trials comparing the NOACs with warfarin have shown similar efficacy between the treatment strategies but fewer bleeding episodes with the NOACs. This paper presents an evidence-based review describing the efficacy and safety of the new anticoagulants compared to warfarin.
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Perioperative atrial fibrillation: A systematic review of evolving therapeutic options in pharmacologic and procedural management
J William Schleifer, Harish Ramakrishna
October-December 2015, 18(4):565-570
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166466  PMID:26440243
Given the high incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in the surgical population and the associated morbidity, physicians managing these complicated patients in the perioperative period need to be aware of the new and emerging trends in its therapy. The cornerstones of AF management have always been rate/rhythm control as well as anticoagulation. Restoration of sinus rhythm remains the fundamental philosophy as it maintains the atrial contribution to cardiac output and improves ventricular function. The recent years have seen a dramatic increase in the number of randomized AF trials that have made significant advances to our understanding of both pharmacologic and procedural management, from the introduction of the new generation of oral anticoagulants (NOAC's) to catheter approaches for AF ablation. This paper will summarize the newest data that will affect the perioperative management of these patients.
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VIDEO COMMENTARIES
Thoracic sympathectomy radiofrequency ablation
Ashu Kumar Jain, Rajat Gupta
October-December 2015, 18(4):612-612
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166488  
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Video commentary on trans-esophageal echocardiography of tricuspid valve
Sameer Taneja, Sarvesh Pal Singh, Poonam Malhotra
October-December 2015, 18(4):613-615
DOI:10.4103/0971-9784.166489  
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